From the early days of four - function calculators and transistor radios, the microelectronics industry has expanded considerably. Semiconductor chips have become an essential ingredient in consumer appliances such as computers, multimedia systems, cell phones, pagers, and automobiles. To keep pace with the growing demand for semiconductor chips, manufacturers have used strategies such as reducing device size and increasing wafer diameter to increase manufacturing capacity. In line with this trend, the semiconductor industry is currently poised to transition to a wafer size of 300mm (12″) from the current 200mm (8″). This change is expected to be the most challenging and expensive transition in the history of the semiconductor industry. While a considerable amount of research is being done to analyze the influence of this transition on 300mm processes and tools, little attention has been paid to studying its effect on the design and construction of 300mm wafer manufacturing facilities. This paper analyzes the transition to 300mm wafer fabs from a construction standpoint. It identifies changes in the material handling system, process tools, utility consumption, process cleanliness requirements, and reduced project delivery time as the key technology areas that influence construction in terms of space, layout, structure, materials, and schedule.