Deposition of Al-doped zinc oxide by direct pulsed laser recrystallization at room temperature on various substrates for solar cell applications

Martin Y. Zhang, Qiong Nian, Gary J. Cheng

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Abstract

In this study, a method combining room temperature pulsed laser deposition (PLD) and direct pulsed laser recrystallization (DPLR) are introduced to deposit superior transparent conductive oxide (TCO) layer on low melting point flexible substrates. As an indispensable component of thin film solar cell, TCO layer with a higher quality will improve the overall performance of solar cells. Alumina-doped zinc oxide (AZO), as one of the most promising TCO candidates, has now been widely used in solar cells. However, to achieve optimal electrical and optical properties of AZO on low melting point flexible substrate is challenging. Recently developed direct pulsed laser recrystallization (DPLR) technique is a scalable, economic and fast process for point defects elimination and recrystallization at room temperature. It features selective processing by only heating up the TCO thin film and preserve the underlying substrate at low temperature. In this study, 250 nm AZO thin film is pre-deposited by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) on flexible and rigid substrates. Then DPLR is introduced to achieve a uniform TCO layer on low melting point flexible substrates, i.e. commercialized Kapton polyimide film and micron-thick Al-foil. Both finite element analysis (FEA) simulation and designed experiments are carried out to demonstrate that DPLR is promising in manufacturing high quality AZO layers without any damage to the underlying flexible substrates. Under appropriate experiment conditions, such as 248 nm in laser wavelength, 25 ns in laser pulse duration, 15 laser pulses at laser fluence of 25 mJ/cm2, desired temperature would result in the AZO thin film and activate the grain growth and recrystallization. Besides laser conditions, the thermal conductivity and crystallinity of the substrate serve as additional factors in the DPLR process. It is found that the substrate's thermal conductivity correlates positively with the AZO crystal size; the substrate's crystallinity correlates positively with the AZO film's crystallinity. The thermal expansion of substrate would also contribute to the film tensile stress after processed by DPLR technique. The overall results indicate that DPLR technique is useful and scalable for flexible solar cell manufacturing.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationASME 2012 International Manufacturing Science and Engineering Conference Collocated with the 40th North American Manufacturing Research Conf. and in Participation with the Int. Conf., MSEC 2012
Pages965-970
Number of pages6
DOIs
StatePublished - 2012
Externally publishedYes
EventASME 2012 International Manufacturing Science and Engineering Conference, MSEC 2012 Collocated with the 40th North American Manufacturing Research Conference and in Participation with the International Conference - Notre Dame, IN, United States
Duration: Jun 4 2012Jun 8 2012

Other

OtherASME 2012 International Manufacturing Science and Engineering Conference, MSEC 2012 Collocated with the 40th North American Manufacturing Research Conference and in Participation with the International Conference
CountryUnited States
CityNotre Dame, IN
Period6/4/126/8/12

Fingerprint

Zinc oxide
Pulsed lasers
Solar cells
Alumina
Substrates
Oxide films
Temperature
Melting point
Oxides
Pulsed laser deposition
Thin films
Lasers
Laser pulses
Thermal conductivity
Point defects
Grain growth
Polyimides
Tensile stress
Metal foil
Thermal expansion

Keywords

  • Alumina-doped zinc oxide
  • Direct pulsed laser recrystallization
  • Post-thermal annealing
  • Thin film solar cells
  • Transparent conductive oxide

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering

Cite this

Zhang, M. Y., Nian, Q., & Cheng, G. J. (2012). Deposition of Al-doped zinc oxide by direct pulsed laser recrystallization at room temperature on various substrates for solar cell applications. In ASME 2012 International Manufacturing Science and Engineering Conference Collocated with the 40th North American Manufacturing Research Conf. and in Participation with the Int. Conf., MSEC 2012 (pp. 965-970) https://doi.org/10.1115/MSEC2012-7381

Deposition of Al-doped zinc oxide by direct pulsed laser recrystallization at room temperature on various substrates for solar cell applications. / Zhang, Martin Y.; Nian, Qiong; Cheng, Gary J.

ASME 2012 International Manufacturing Science and Engineering Conference Collocated with the 40th North American Manufacturing Research Conf. and in Participation with the Int. Conf., MSEC 2012. 2012. p. 965-970.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Zhang, MY, Nian, Q & Cheng, GJ 2012, Deposition of Al-doped zinc oxide by direct pulsed laser recrystallization at room temperature on various substrates for solar cell applications. in ASME 2012 International Manufacturing Science and Engineering Conference Collocated with the 40th North American Manufacturing Research Conf. and in Participation with the Int. Conf., MSEC 2012. pp. 965-970, ASME 2012 International Manufacturing Science and Engineering Conference, MSEC 2012 Collocated with the 40th North American Manufacturing Research Conference and in Participation with the International Conference, Notre Dame, IN, United States, 6/4/12. https://doi.org/10.1115/MSEC2012-7381
Zhang MY, Nian Q, Cheng GJ. Deposition of Al-doped zinc oxide by direct pulsed laser recrystallization at room temperature on various substrates for solar cell applications. In ASME 2012 International Manufacturing Science and Engineering Conference Collocated with the 40th North American Manufacturing Research Conf. and in Participation with the Int. Conf., MSEC 2012. 2012. p. 965-970 https://doi.org/10.1115/MSEC2012-7381
Zhang, Martin Y. ; Nian, Qiong ; Cheng, Gary J. / Deposition of Al-doped zinc oxide by direct pulsed laser recrystallization at room temperature on various substrates for solar cell applications. ASME 2012 International Manufacturing Science and Engineering Conference Collocated with the 40th North American Manufacturing Research Conf. and in Participation with the Int. Conf., MSEC 2012. 2012. pp. 965-970
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abstract = "In this study, a method combining room temperature pulsed laser deposition (PLD) and direct pulsed laser recrystallization (DPLR) are introduced to deposit superior transparent conductive oxide (TCO) layer on low melting point flexible substrates. As an indispensable component of thin film solar cell, TCO layer with a higher quality will improve the overall performance of solar cells. Alumina-doped zinc oxide (AZO), as one of the most promising TCO candidates, has now been widely used in solar cells. However, to achieve optimal electrical and optical properties of AZO on low melting point flexible substrate is challenging. Recently developed direct pulsed laser recrystallization (DPLR) technique is a scalable, economic and fast process for point defects elimination and recrystallization at room temperature. It features selective processing by only heating up the TCO thin film and preserve the underlying substrate at low temperature. In this study, 250 nm AZO thin film is pre-deposited by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) on flexible and rigid substrates. Then DPLR is introduced to achieve a uniform TCO layer on low melting point flexible substrates, i.e. commercialized Kapton polyimide film and micron-thick Al-foil. Both finite element analysis (FEA) simulation and designed experiments are carried out to demonstrate that DPLR is promising in manufacturing high quality AZO layers without any damage to the underlying flexible substrates. Under appropriate experiment conditions, such as 248 nm in laser wavelength, 25 ns in laser pulse duration, 15 laser pulses at laser fluence of 25 mJ/cm2, desired temperature would result in the AZO thin film and activate the grain growth and recrystallization. Besides laser conditions, the thermal conductivity and crystallinity of the substrate serve as additional factors in the DPLR process. It is found that the substrate's thermal conductivity correlates positively with the AZO crystal size; the substrate's crystallinity correlates positively with the AZO film's crystallinity. The thermal expansion of substrate would also contribute to the film tensile stress after processed by DPLR technique. The overall results indicate that DPLR technique is useful and scalable for flexible solar cell manufacturing.",
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N2 - In this study, a method combining room temperature pulsed laser deposition (PLD) and direct pulsed laser recrystallization (DPLR) are introduced to deposit superior transparent conductive oxide (TCO) layer on low melting point flexible substrates. As an indispensable component of thin film solar cell, TCO layer with a higher quality will improve the overall performance of solar cells. Alumina-doped zinc oxide (AZO), as one of the most promising TCO candidates, has now been widely used in solar cells. However, to achieve optimal electrical and optical properties of AZO on low melting point flexible substrate is challenging. Recently developed direct pulsed laser recrystallization (DPLR) technique is a scalable, economic and fast process for point defects elimination and recrystallization at room temperature. It features selective processing by only heating up the TCO thin film and preserve the underlying substrate at low temperature. In this study, 250 nm AZO thin film is pre-deposited by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) on flexible and rigid substrates. Then DPLR is introduced to achieve a uniform TCO layer on low melting point flexible substrates, i.e. commercialized Kapton polyimide film and micron-thick Al-foil. Both finite element analysis (FEA) simulation and designed experiments are carried out to demonstrate that DPLR is promising in manufacturing high quality AZO layers without any damage to the underlying flexible substrates. Under appropriate experiment conditions, such as 248 nm in laser wavelength, 25 ns in laser pulse duration, 15 laser pulses at laser fluence of 25 mJ/cm2, desired temperature would result in the AZO thin film and activate the grain growth and recrystallization. Besides laser conditions, the thermal conductivity and crystallinity of the substrate serve as additional factors in the DPLR process. It is found that the substrate's thermal conductivity correlates positively with the AZO crystal size; the substrate's crystallinity correlates positively with the AZO film's crystallinity. The thermal expansion of substrate would also contribute to the film tensile stress after processed by DPLR technique. The overall results indicate that DPLR technique is useful and scalable for flexible solar cell manufacturing.

AB - In this study, a method combining room temperature pulsed laser deposition (PLD) and direct pulsed laser recrystallization (DPLR) are introduced to deposit superior transparent conductive oxide (TCO) layer on low melting point flexible substrates. As an indispensable component of thin film solar cell, TCO layer with a higher quality will improve the overall performance of solar cells. Alumina-doped zinc oxide (AZO), as one of the most promising TCO candidates, has now been widely used in solar cells. However, to achieve optimal electrical and optical properties of AZO on low melting point flexible substrate is challenging. Recently developed direct pulsed laser recrystallization (DPLR) technique is a scalable, economic and fast process for point defects elimination and recrystallization at room temperature. It features selective processing by only heating up the TCO thin film and preserve the underlying substrate at low temperature. In this study, 250 nm AZO thin film is pre-deposited by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) on flexible and rigid substrates. Then DPLR is introduced to achieve a uniform TCO layer on low melting point flexible substrates, i.e. commercialized Kapton polyimide film and micron-thick Al-foil. Both finite element analysis (FEA) simulation and designed experiments are carried out to demonstrate that DPLR is promising in manufacturing high quality AZO layers without any damage to the underlying flexible substrates. Under appropriate experiment conditions, such as 248 nm in laser wavelength, 25 ns in laser pulse duration, 15 laser pulses at laser fluence of 25 mJ/cm2, desired temperature would result in the AZO thin film and activate the grain growth and recrystallization. Besides laser conditions, the thermal conductivity and crystallinity of the substrate serve as additional factors in the DPLR process. It is found that the substrate's thermal conductivity correlates positively with the AZO crystal size; the substrate's crystallinity correlates positively with the AZO film's crystallinity. The thermal expansion of substrate would also contribute to the film tensile stress after processed by DPLR technique. The overall results indicate that DPLR technique is useful and scalable for flexible solar cell manufacturing.

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KW - Post-thermal annealing

KW - Thin film solar cells

KW - Transparent conductive oxide

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