We have used density-functional theory to investigate (111), (110), (210), (211), (100), and (310) surfaces of ceria (Ce O2). Compared with previous interatomic-potential-based studies, our calculations reported a slightly different relative stability ordering and significantly lower surface energies for the stoichiometric surfaces. Using a defect model, the surface stabilities were evaluated as functions of oxygen partial pressure and temperature. Our investigations were restricted to ideal surface terminations, without considering defect formation on those surfaces. We found that at 300 K, the stoichiometric (111) has the lowest free energy for a wide range of oxygen partial pressures up to 1 atm, and only at ultrahigh vacuum does the Ce-terminated (111) becomes the most stable one. The transition point for the Ce-terminated (111) surfaces moves to higher oxygen partial pressures when temperature increases. To improve the prediction of electron density of states, we used the local-density approximation plus U (J) correction method to correct the on-site Coulomb correlation and exchange interaction due to the strongly localized Ce-4f electrons. The optimal parameter combination of U=7 eV and J=0.7 eV was found to improve the O 2p-Ce 4f gap without much degradation of ground-state bulk properties or the O 2p-Ce 5d gap. The bulk and surface electronic structures were then analyzed based on the improved density of states.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Physics and Astronomy(all)
- Physical and Theoretical Chemistry