Daily vinegar ingestion improves depression scores and alters the metabolome in healthy adults: A randomized controlled trial

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Daily vinegar ingestion has been linked to improved glycemic control, but recent data suggest a separate unexplored role for vinegar in mental health. Utilizing a placebo-controlled, parallel arm study design, this 4-week trial examined the impact of daily vinegar ingestion on mood states and urinary metabolites in healthy college students. Participants were randomized to the vinegar group (VIN: n = 14; 1.5 g acetic acid/day as liquid vinegar) or the control group (CON: n = 11; 0.015 g acetic acid/day as a pill) with no change to customary diet or physical activity. At baseline and at study week four, participants completed the Profile of Mood States (POMS) and the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression (CES-D) questionnaires and provided a first-morning urine sample for targeted metabolomics analyses. The change in both POMS depression scores and CES-D scores differed significantly between groups favoring improved affect in the VIN versus CON participants after four weeks. Metabolomics analyses pre and post-intervention suggested metabolite alterations associated with vinegar ingestion that are consistent for improved mood, including enzymatic dysfunction in the hexosamine pathway as well as significant increases in glycine, serine, and threonine metabolism. These data warrant continued investigation of vinegar as a possible agent to improve mood state.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number4020
JournalNutrients
Volume13
Issue number11
DOIs
StatePublished - Nov 2021
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Depression
  • Metabolomics
  • Vinegar

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Food Science
  • Nutrition and Dietetics

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