Crystallization of synthetic coal-petcoke slag mixtures simulating those encountered in entrained bed slagging gasifiers†

Jinichiro Nakano, Seetharaman Sridhar, Tyler Moss, James Bennett, Kyei Sing Kwong

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

43 Scopus citations


Commercial entrained bed slagging gasifiers use a carbon feedstock of coal, petcoke, or combinations of them to produce CO and H2These carbon sources contain mineral impurities that liquefy during gasification and flow down the gasification sidewall, interacting with the refractory linear and solidifying in the cooler zones of the gasifier. Proper slag flow is critical to good gasifier operation. A hot-stage confocal scanning laser microscope (CSLM) was used to analyze the kinetic behavior of slag crystallization for a range of synthetic coal-petcoke mixtures. On the basis of the observed precipitation during cool down studies in the 1200-1700 °C temperature range, a time-temperature-transformation (TTT) diagram was created. The crystallization studies were conducted with a CO/CO2 (=1.8) corresponding to a gasification PO2 of approximately 108 atm at 1500 °C. Ash chemistries were chosen such that they correspond to coal-petcoke feedstock mixtures with coal ash amounts of 0, 10, 30, 50, 70, and 100% (by weight), with the balance being petcoke ash. The TTT diagram exhibited two crystallization areas, one above and one below 1350 °C. At the nose of the higher temperature curves, karelianite (V2O3) crystallization occurred and was fastest for a 30% coal-petcoke ash mixture. The second nose was located below 1350 °C and had spineltype phases that formed at 1200 °C, in which preferred atomic occupation at the octahedral and tetrahedral sites varied depending upon the ash composition. At 1200 °C, an Al-rich spinel formed for 100% coal slag and a Fe-rich spinel formed in petcoke-enriched slags. The addition of petcoke ash to coal ash promoted crystallization in the slag, with additional crystalline phases, such as V-rich spinel, forming at the lower temperatures. These phases were not predicted using commercially available databases. ;

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)4723-4733
Number of pages11
JournalEnergy and Fuels
Issue number10
StatePublished - Oct 15 2009
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Chemical Engineering(all)
  • Fuel Technology
  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology


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