Crystalline-amorphous core-shell silicon nanowires for high capacity and high current battery electrodes

Li Feng Cui, Riccardo Ruffo, Candace Chan, Hailin Peng, Yi Cui

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

894 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Silicon is an attractive alloy-type anode material for lithium ion batteries because of its highest known capacity (4200 mAh/g). However silicon's large volume change upon lithium insertion and extraction, which causes pulverization and capacity fading, has limited its applications. Designing nanoscale hierarchical structures is a novel approach to address the issues associated with the large volume changes. In this letter, we introduce a core-shell design of silicon nanowires for highpower and long-life lithium battery electrodes. Silicon crystalline- amorphous core-shell nanowires were grown directly on stainless steel current collectors by a simple one-step synthesis. Amorphous Si shells instead of crystalline Si cores can be selected to be electrochemically active due to the difference of their lithiation potentials. Therefore, crystalline Si cores function as a stable mechanical support and an efficient electrical conducting pathway while amorphous shells store Li ions. We demonstrate here that these core-shell nanowires have high charge storage capacity (̃1000 mAh/g, 3 times of carbon) with ̃90% capacity retention over 100 cycles. They also show excellent electrochemical performance at high rate charging and discharging (6.8 A/g, ̃20 times of carbon at 1 h rate).

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)491-495
Number of pages5
JournalNano Letters
Volume9
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 2009
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Silicon
Nanowires
high current
electric batteries
nanowires
Crystalline materials
Electrodes
electrodes
silicon
Carbon
lithium
Lithium batteries
Stainless Steel
Lithium
lithium batteries
carbon
fading
Anodes
Stainless steel
accumulators

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Bioengineering
  • Chemistry(all)
  • Materials Science(all)
  • Mechanical Engineering

Cite this

Crystalline-amorphous core-shell silicon nanowires for high capacity and high current battery electrodes. / Cui, Li Feng; Ruffo, Riccardo; Chan, Candace; Peng, Hailin; Cui, Yi.

In: Nano Letters, Vol. 9, No. 1, 01.2009, p. 491-495.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Cui, Li Feng ; Ruffo, Riccardo ; Chan, Candace ; Peng, Hailin ; Cui, Yi. / Crystalline-amorphous core-shell silicon nanowires for high capacity and high current battery electrodes. In: Nano Letters. 2009 ; Vol. 9, No. 1. pp. 491-495.
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