Since the conception of radio astronomy , researchers have been striving to develop a 'zero-noise' broadband receiver. Although this goal has remained elusive, the pursuit of it has led to numerous low-noise circuit innovations , . Perhaps the most notable of these innovations are cryogenic low-noise amplifiers (cryo-LNAs) - as this technology has been able to achieve the lowest noise levels to date. While references to cryogenic amplifiers in the literature date back to the early 1950s , they are still a subject of much interest among researchers. Cryo-LNAs were initially conceived of to address challenges in the fields of space exploration ,  and radio astronomy . More recently, researchers in other fields have become interested in 'zero-noise' receivers, making this a topic of widespread interest among RF and microwave engineers.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Condensed Matter Physics
- Electrical and Electronic Engineering