Cryogenic Noise-Parameter Measurements: Recent Research and a Fully Automated Measurement Application

Alexander Sheldon, Leonid Belostotski, Hamdi Mani, Christopher E. Groppi, Karl F. Warnick

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


Since the conception of radio astronomy [1], researchers have been striving to develop a 'zero-noise' broadband receiver. Although this goal has remained elusive, the pursuit of it has led to numerous low-noise circuit innovations [2], [3]. Perhaps the most notable of these innovations are cryogenic low-noise amplifiers (cryo-LNAs) [3]-[6] as this technology has been able to achieve the lowest noise levels to date. While references to cryogenic amplifiers in the literature date back to the early 1950s [7], they are still a subject of much interest among researchers. Cryo-LNAs were initially conceived of to address challenges in the fields of space exploration [8], [9] and radio astronomy [10]. More recently, researchers in other fields have become interested in 'zero-noise' receivers, making this a topic of widespread interest among RF and microwave engineers.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number9475609
Pages (from-to)52-64
Number of pages13
JournalIEEE Microwave Magazine
Issue number8
StatePublished - Aug 2021
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiation
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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