Data from four studies are analyzed to identify effective patterns of leadership behavior for military cadets and Air Force officers. Two studies employ a questionnaire-correlational methodology, and two use content analysis of critical incidents. Combat, simulated combat, and two noncombat situations are compared to examine situational differences in effective leadership behavior. Behaviors that are important for group performance in both combat and noncombat situations include performance emphasis, inspiration, role clarification, and criticism-discipline. Planning and problem solving are important in dynamic, uncertain combat situations but not in stable, benign academic situations. Consideration is important for maintaining effective leader-subordinate relations, particularly in noncombat situations, but is unrelated to group performance. Most discrepancies in results among studies can be explained either in terms of method effects or situational differences in role requirements for leaders.
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