The support of voice communication is fundamental in the deployment of an ad hoc network for the battlefield or emergency response. We use the QoS requirements of voice to identify factors influencing its communication, and validate their significance through statistical analysis. Based on the results, we propose an opportunistic protocol within a cross-layer framework that adapts these factors at different time scales. Hop-by-hop adaptation exploits the PHY/MAC interaction to improve the use of the spectral resources through opportunistic rate-control and packet bursts, while end-to-end adaptation exploits the LLC/application interaction to control the demand per call through voice coding and packet size selection. Our objective is to maximize the number of calls admitted while minimizing loss of quality. We evaluate the performance of the protocol in simulation with real audio traces using both quantitative and mean opinion score (MOS) audio quality metrics, comparing to several standard voice codecs. The results indicate that: (i) compression and packet-size selection play a critical role in supporting QoS over ad hoc networks; (ii) header compression is needed to limit the overhead per packet especially over longer paths; (iii) good voice quality is achieved even in strenuous network conditions.
- Ad hoc networks
- Cross-layer design
- Opportunistic protocol
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Computer Networks and Communications