Cross-language measurement equivalence of the place attachment scale: A multigroup confirmatory factor analysis approach

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Cross-language (or cross-cultural) comparisons of theoretical constructs are of growing interest in leisure studies. In order for such comparisons to be meaningful, constructs are required to exhibit adequate measurement equivalence across languages. This study utilizes multigroup confirmatory factor analysis to examine measurement equivalence of an English and non-English version of the place attachment scale. Findings reveal a lack of measurement equivalence between the two groups. Researchers involved in cross-language and/or cross-cultural construct comparisons are cautioned against such comparisons unless measurement invariance of the concept(s) under investigation has been established. Ignoring measurement invariance testing could potentially threaten the validity of a study, limit the comparability of multi-lingual versions of a measure and ultimately lead to biased results.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)25-42
Number of pages18
JournalJournal of Leisure Research
Issue number1
StatePublished - Dec 1 2010



  • Measurement invariance
  • Place attachment
  • Translations

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Environmental Science (miscellaneous)
  • Sociology and Political Science
  • Tourism, Leisure and Hospitality Management

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