Criticality of metals and metalloids

T. E. Graedel, E. M. Harper, N. T. Nassar, Philip Nuss, Barbara K. Reck, Billie Turner

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

167 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Imbalances between metal supply and demand, real or anticipated, have inspired the concept of metal criticality. We here characterize the criticality of 62 metals and metalloids in a 3D "criticality space" consisting of supply risk, environmental implications, and vulnerability to supply restriction. Contributing factors that lead to extreme values include high geopolitical concentration of primary production, lack of available suitable substitutes, and political instability. The results show that the limitations for many metals important in emerging electronics (e.g., gallium and selenium) are largely those related to supply risk; those of platinum group metals, gold, and mercury, to environmental implications; and steel alloying elements (e.g., chromium and niobium) as well as elements used in high-temperature alloys (e.g., tungsten and molybdenum), to vulnerability to supply restriction. The metals of most concern tend to be those available largely or entirely as byproducts, used in small quantities for highly specialized applications, and possessing no effective substitutes.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)4257-4262
Number of pages6
JournalProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Volume112
Issue number14
DOIs
StatePublished - Apr 7 2015

Fingerprint

metal
vulnerability
political instability
gallium
niobium
tungsten
molybdenum
selenium
environmental risk
platinum
chromium
metalloid
primary production
gold
steel

Keywords

  • Economic geology
  • Materials science
  • Substitution
  • Supply risk
  • Sustainability

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General

Cite this

Criticality of metals and metalloids. / Graedel, T. E.; Harper, E. M.; Nassar, N. T.; Nuss, Philip; Reck, Barbara K.; Turner, Billie.

In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, Vol. 112, No. 14, 07.04.2015, p. 4257-4262.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Graedel, T. E. ; Harper, E. M. ; Nassar, N. T. ; Nuss, Philip ; Reck, Barbara K. ; Turner, Billie. / Criticality of metals and metalloids. In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 2015 ; Vol. 112, No. 14. pp. 4257-4262.
@article{00b231487c184bc4880261360a74abd7,
title = "Criticality of metals and metalloids",
abstract = "Imbalances between metal supply and demand, real or anticipated, have inspired the concept of metal criticality. We here characterize the criticality of 62 metals and metalloids in a 3D {"}criticality space{"} consisting of supply risk, environmental implications, and vulnerability to supply restriction. Contributing factors that lead to extreme values include high geopolitical concentration of primary production, lack of available suitable substitutes, and political instability. The results show that the limitations for many metals important in emerging electronics (e.g., gallium and selenium) are largely those related to supply risk; those of platinum group metals, gold, and mercury, to environmental implications; and steel alloying elements (e.g., chromium and niobium) as well as elements used in high-temperature alloys (e.g., tungsten and molybdenum), to vulnerability to supply restriction. The metals of most concern tend to be those available largely or entirely as byproducts, used in small quantities for highly specialized applications, and possessing no effective substitutes.",
keywords = "Economic geology, Materials science, Substitution, Supply risk, Sustainability",
author = "Graedel, {T. E.} and Harper, {E. M.} and Nassar, {N. T.} and Philip Nuss and Reck, {Barbara K.} and Billie Turner",
year = "2015",
month = "4",
day = "7",
doi = "10.1073/pnas.1500415112",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "112",
pages = "4257--4262",
journal = "Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America",
issn = "0027-8424",
number = "14",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Criticality of metals and metalloids

AU - Graedel, T. E.

AU - Harper, E. M.

AU - Nassar, N. T.

AU - Nuss, Philip

AU - Reck, Barbara K.

AU - Turner, Billie

PY - 2015/4/7

Y1 - 2015/4/7

N2 - Imbalances between metal supply and demand, real or anticipated, have inspired the concept of metal criticality. We here characterize the criticality of 62 metals and metalloids in a 3D "criticality space" consisting of supply risk, environmental implications, and vulnerability to supply restriction. Contributing factors that lead to extreme values include high geopolitical concentration of primary production, lack of available suitable substitutes, and political instability. The results show that the limitations for many metals important in emerging electronics (e.g., gallium and selenium) are largely those related to supply risk; those of platinum group metals, gold, and mercury, to environmental implications; and steel alloying elements (e.g., chromium and niobium) as well as elements used in high-temperature alloys (e.g., tungsten and molybdenum), to vulnerability to supply restriction. The metals of most concern tend to be those available largely or entirely as byproducts, used in small quantities for highly specialized applications, and possessing no effective substitutes.

AB - Imbalances between metal supply and demand, real or anticipated, have inspired the concept of metal criticality. We here characterize the criticality of 62 metals and metalloids in a 3D "criticality space" consisting of supply risk, environmental implications, and vulnerability to supply restriction. Contributing factors that lead to extreme values include high geopolitical concentration of primary production, lack of available suitable substitutes, and political instability. The results show that the limitations for many metals important in emerging electronics (e.g., gallium and selenium) are largely those related to supply risk; those of platinum group metals, gold, and mercury, to environmental implications; and steel alloying elements (e.g., chromium and niobium) as well as elements used in high-temperature alloys (e.g., tungsten and molybdenum), to vulnerability to supply restriction. The metals of most concern tend to be those available largely or entirely as byproducts, used in small quantities for highly specialized applications, and possessing no effective substitutes.

KW - Economic geology

KW - Materials science

KW - Substitution

KW - Supply risk

KW - Sustainability

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84929485471&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84929485471&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1073/pnas.1500415112

DO - 10.1073/pnas.1500415112

M3 - Article

VL - 112

SP - 4257

EP - 4262

JO - Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

JF - Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

SN - 0027-8424

IS - 14

ER -