Critical review of major sources of human exposure to N-nitrosamines

Adam J. Gushgari, Rolf Halden

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

10 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

More than 24 N-nitrosamine compounds contribute to the total N-nitrosamine (TNA) burden monitored routinely to assess human exposure to this important group of known and suspected human carcinogens. A literature review (n = 122) identified multiple sources of human exposure to TNAs, including waters (40 ± 10.5 ng/L; average ± standard deviation), food and beverages (6.7 ± 0.8 ng/g), tobacco (16,100 ± 3650 ng/g) and personal care products (1500 ± 750 ng/g). Due to source control interventions, levels of TNAs in beer have dropped by about 96% between 1980 and 1990, whereas N-nitrosamine levels in other known sources have shown little to no change. Maximum daily TNA exposure in the U.S. in units of ng/d is estimated at 25,000 ± 4,950, driven by consumption of tobacco products (22,000 ± 4350), food (1900 ± 380), alcohol (1000 ± 200), and drinking water (120 ± 24). Behavioral choices of individuals in non-occupational settings were calculated to result in a spectrum of exposure values ranging from a lower bound of 1900 ± 380 ng/d to a higher bound of 25,000 ± 4950 ng/d, indicating opportunities for a possible 12-fold reduction in TNA exposure to 8% of the above maximum through deliberate choices in diet and lifestyle.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1124-1136
Number of pages13
JournalChemosphere
Volume210
DOIs
StatePublished - Nov 1 2018
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Nitrosamines
Tobacco
tobacco
Food and Beverages
Beer
Carcinogens
Beverages
food
Level control
carcinogen
Nutrition
literature review
lifestyle
Tobacco Products
Potable water
Drinking Water
Life Style
alcohol
Alcohols
drinking water

Keywords

  • Attributable risk analysis
  • Dermal contact
  • Human exposure
  • Ingestion
  • Inhalation
  • N-nitrosamine

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Chemistry(all)
  • Environmental Chemistry

Cite this

Critical review of major sources of human exposure to N-nitrosamines. / Gushgari, Adam J.; Halden, Rolf.

In: Chemosphere, Vol. 210, 01.11.2018, p. 1124-1136.

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

@article{f228d38ca52c49d9bbb557e5072d4dd8,
title = "Critical review of major sources of human exposure to N-nitrosamines",
abstract = "More than 24 N-nitrosamine compounds contribute to the total N-nitrosamine (TNA) burden monitored routinely to assess human exposure to this important group of known and suspected human carcinogens. A literature review (n = 122) identified multiple sources of human exposure to TNAs, including waters (40 ± 10.5 ng/L; average ± standard deviation), food and beverages (6.7 ± 0.8 ng/g), tobacco (16,100 ± 3650 ng/g) and personal care products (1500 ± 750 ng/g). Due to source control interventions, levels of TNAs in beer have dropped by about 96{\%} between 1980 and 1990, whereas N-nitrosamine levels in other known sources have shown little to no change. Maximum daily TNA exposure in the U.S. in units of ng/d is estimated at 25,000 ± 4,950, driven by consumption of tobacco products (22,000 ± 4350), food (1900 ± 380), alcohol (1000 ± 200), and drinking water (120 ± 24). Behavioral choices of individuals in non-occupational settings were calculated to result in a spectrum of exposure values ranging from a lower bound of 1900 ± 380 ng/d to a higher bound of 25,000 ± 4950 ng/d, indicating opportunities for a possible 12-fold reduction in TNA exposure to 8{\%} of the above maximum through deliberate choices in diet and lifestyle.",
keywords = "Attributable risk analysis, Dermal contact, Human exposure, Ingestion, Inhalation, N-nitrosamine",
author = "Gushgari, {Adam J.} and Rolf Halden",
year = "2018",
month = "11",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1016/j.chemosphere.2018.07.098",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "210",
pages = "1124--1136",
journal = "Chemosphere",
issn = "0045-6535",
publisher = "Elsevier Limited",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Critical review of major sources of human exposure to N-nitrosamines

AU - Gushgari, Adam J.

AU - Halden, Rolf

PY - 2018/11/1

Y1 - 2018/11/1

N2 - More than 24 N-nitrosamine compounds contribute to the total N-nitrosamine (TNA) burden monitored routinely to assess human exposure to this important group of known and suspected human carcinogens. A literature review (n = 122) identified multiple sources of human exposure to TNAs, including waters (40 ± 10.5 ng/L; average ± standard deviation), food and beverages (6.7 ± 0.8 ng/g), tobacco (16,100 ± 3650 ng/g) and personal care products (1500 ± 750 ng/g). Due to source control interventions, levels of TNAs in beer have dropped by about 96% between 1980 and 1990, whereas N-nitrosamine levels in other known sources have shown little to no change. Maximum daily TNA exposure in the U.S. in units of ng/d is estimated at 25,000 ± 4,950, driven by consumption of tobacco products (22,000 ± 4350), food (1900 ± 380), alcohol (1000 ± 200), and drinking water (120 ± 24). Behavioral choices of individuals in non-occupational settings were calculated to result in a spectrum of exposure values ranging from a lower bound of 1900 ± 380 ng/d to a higher bound of 25,000 ± 4950 ng/d, indicating opportunities for a possible 12-fold reduction in TNA exposure to 8% of the above maximum through deliberate choices in diet and lifestyle.

AB - More than 24 N-nitrosamine compounds contribute to the total N-nitrosamine (TNA) burden monitored routinely to assess human exposure to this important group of known and suspected human carcinogens. A literature review (n = 122) identified multiple sources of human exposure to TNAs, including waters (40 ± 10.5 ng/L; average ± standard deviation), food and beverages (6.7 ± 0.8 ng/g), tobacco (16,100 ± 3650 ng/g) and personal care products (1500 ± 750 ng/g). Due to source control interventions, levels of TNAs in beer have dropped by about 96% between 1980 and 1990, whereas N-nitrosamine levels in other known sources have shown little to no change. Maximum daily TNA exposure in the U.S. in units of ng/d is estimated at 25,000 ± 4,950, driven by consumption of tobacco products (22,000 ± 4350), food (1900 ± 380), alcohol (1000 ± 200), and drinking water (120 ± 24). Behavioral choices of individuals in non-occupational settings were calculated to result in a spectrum of exposure values ranging from a lower bound of 1900 ± 380 ng/d to a higher bound of 25,000 ± 4950 ng/d, indicating opportunities for a possible 12-fold reduction in TNA exposure to 8% of the above maximum through deliberate choices in diet and lifestyle.

KW - Attributable risk analysis

KW - Dermal contact

KW - Human exposure

KW - Ingestion

KW - Inhalation

KW - N-nitrosamine

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85053175824&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=85053175824&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2018.07.098

DO - 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2018.07.098

M3 - Review article

VL - 210

SP - 1124

EP - 1136

JO - Chemosphere

JF - Chemosphere

SN - 0045-6535

ER -