Quantification of molecular interactions on a surface is typically achieved via label-free techniques such as surface plasmon resonance (SPR). The sensitivity of SPR originates from the characteristic that the SPR angle is sensitive to the surface refractive index change. Analogously, in another interfacial optical phenomenon, total internal reflection, the critical angle is also refractive index dependent. Therefore, surface refractive index change can also be quantified by measuring the reflectivity near the critical angle. Based on this concept, we develop a method called critical angle reflection (CAR) imaging to quantify molecular interactions on glass surface. CAR imaging can be performed on SPR imaging setups. Through a side-by-side comparison, we show that CAR is capable of most molecular interaction measurements that SPR performs, including proteins, nucleic acids and cell-based detections. In addition, we show that CAR can detect small molecule bindings and intracellular signals beyond SPR sensing range. CAR exhibits several distinct characteristics, including tunable sensitivity and dynamic range, deeper vertical sensing range, fluorescence compatibility, broader wavelength and polarization of light selection, and glass surface chemistry. We anticipate CAR can expand SPR′s capability in small molecule detection, whole cell-based detection, simultaneous fluorescence imaging, and broader conjugation chemistry.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
- Physics and Astronomy(all)