Crime and physical activity: Development of a conceptual framework and measures

Christina M. Patch, Caterina G. Roman, Terry L. Conway, Ralph B. Taylor, Kavita A. Gavand, Brian E. Saelens, Marc A. Adams, Kelli L. Cain, Jessa K. Engelberg, Lauren Mayes, Scott C. Roesch, James F. Sallis

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Background: A common hypothesis is that crime is a major barrier to physical activity, but research does not consistently support this assumption. This article advances research on crime-related safety and physical activity by developing a multilevel conceptual framework and reliable measures applicable across age groups. Methods: Criminologists and physical activity researchers collaborated to develop a conceptual framework. Survey development involved qualitative data collection and resulted in 155 items and 26 scales. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) were computed to assess test–retest reliability in a subsample of participants (N = 176). Analyses were conducted separately by age groups. Results: Test–retest reliability for most scales (63 of 104 ICCs across 4 age groups) was “excellent” or “good” (ICC ≥ .60) and only 18 ICCs were “poor” (ICC < .40). Reliability varied by age group. Adolescents (aged 12–17 y) had ICCs above the .40 threshold for 21 of 26 scales (81%). Young adults (aged 18–39 y) and middle-aged adults (aged 40–65 y) had ICCs above .40 for 24 (92%) and 23 (88%) scales, respectively. Older adults (aged 66 y and older) had ICCs above .40 for 18 of 26 scales (69%). Conclusions: The conceptual framework and reliable measures can be used to clarify the inconclusive relationships between crime-related safety and physical activity.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)818-829
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of Physical Activity and Health
Volume16
Issue number10
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jan 1 2019

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Keywords

  • Exercise
  • Fear
  • Public health
  • Safety
  • Walking

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine

Cite this

Patch, C. M., Roman, C. G., Conway, T. L., Taylor, R. B., Gavand, K. A., Saelens, B. E., ... Sallis, J. F. (2019). Crime and physical activity: Development of a conceptual framework and measures. Journal of Physical Activity and Health, 16(10), 818-829. https://doi.org/10.1123/jpah.2018-0405