Silver-based metallizations in photovoltaic modules are susceptible to corrosion by acetic acid generated in ethylene vinyl acetate encapsulated modules, resulting in power losses over time. Here, three silver-based metallizations are exposed to diluted acetic acid, in concentrations representative of that found in field-exposed modules. Compositional, morphological, and structural changes of the metallizations are studied over 3000 h of exposure to diluted acetic acid using Raman spectroscopy mapping, X-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy. The three metallizations studied are: 1) a commercial high-temperature fire-through Ag paste, commonly used for Si diffused junction solar cells; 2) a commercial low-temperature paste normally used for silicon heterojunction cells; and 3) a novel low-temperature reactive silver ink shown to be suitable for photovoltaic applications. We find distinct corrosion rates for the high-temperature silver paste and reactive silver ink in the presence of diluted acetic acid. On the other hand, the low-temperature silver paste appears to be more corrosion resistant, likely due to a polymer layer that protects the silver particles.
- Cell degradation
- Corrosion pathways
- Silver reactive inks
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
- Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
- Surfaces, Coatings and Films