Three-dimensional x-ray tomography (XRT) provides a nondestructive technique to characterize the size, shape, and location of damage in dynamically loaded metals. A shape-fitting method comprising the inertia tensors of individual damage sites was applied to study differences of spall damage development in face-centered-cubic (FCC) and hexagonal-closed-packed (HCP) multicrystals and for a suite of experiments on high-purity copper to examine the influence of loading kinetics on the spall damage process. Applying a volume-weighted average to the best-fit ellipsoidal aspect-ratios allows a quantitative assessment for determining the extent of damage coalescence present in a shocked metal. It was found that incipient transgranular HCP spall damage nucleates in a lenticular shape and is heavily oriented along particular crystallographic slip directions. In polycrystalline materials, shape distributions indicate that a decrease in the tensile loading rate leads to a transition to coalesced damage dominance and that the plastic processes driving void growth are time dependent.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Materials Science(all)