Corpus Analysis on Students’ Counter and Support Arguments in Argumentative Writing

Philip M. McCarthy, Noor W. Kaddoura, Ayah Al-Harthy, Anuja M. Thomas, Nicholas D. Duran, Khawlah Ahmed

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


This study analyzes the linguistic features of counter-arguments and support arguments using two computational linguistic tools: Coh-Metrix and Gramulator. The research question investigates whether counter-argument paragraphs and support paragraphs are different in terms of their linguistic features. To conduct this study, a corpus of 78 argumentative papers was collected. The paragraphs in the papers were categorized in terms of their function. The categories included functions of Support, Counter-argument, Expostulation, Counter-argument and Expostulation, Background, and Other. The paragraphs were analyzed for their readability and writing quality through Coh-Metrix. With the exception of the measure of Deep Cohesion, the Coh-Metrix results suggest minimal differences in terms of readability and writing quality between counter-argument and support paragraphs. Following the Coh-Metrix analysis, both counter-argument and support corpora were analyzed through Gramulator for their lexical features. The Gramulator results suggest the presence of causal language and fixed expressions in counterarguments, as well as some tagged language in support arguments

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)256-271
Number of pages16
JournalPegem Egitim ve Ogretim Dergisi
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 2 2022


  • Auto-peer
  • Coh-metrix
  • Counter-arguments
  • Gramulator
  • Tagged language

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Education


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