Cooperative breeding in South American hunter-gatherers

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

136 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Evolutionary researchers have recently suggested that pre-modern human societies habitually practised cooperative breeding and that this feature helps explain human prosocial tendencies. Despite circumstantial evidence that post-reproductive females and extra-pair males both provide resources required for successful reproduction by mated pairs, no study has yet provided details about the flow of food resources by different age and sex categories to breeders and offspring, nor documented the ratio of helpers to breeders. Here, we show in two hunter-gatherer societies of South America that each breeding pair with dependent offspring on average obtained help from approximately 1.3 non-reproductive adults. Young married males and unmarried males of all ages were the main food providers, accounting for 93-100% of all excess food production available to breeding pairs and their offspring. Thus, each breeding pair with dependants was provisioned on average by 0.8 adult male helpers. The data provide no support for the hypothesis that post-reproductive females are the main provisioners of younger reproductive-aged kin in hunter-gatherer societies. Demographic and food acquisition data show that most breeding pairs can expect food deficits owing to foraging luck, health disabilities and accumulating dependency ratio of offspring in middle age, and that extra-pair provisioning may be essential to the evolved human life history.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)3863-3870
Number of pages8
JournalProceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences
Volume276
Issue number1674
DOIs
StatePublished - Nov 7 2009

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cooperative breeding
hunter-gatherer
Breeding
breeding
Food
food
disability
resource
food production
data acquisition
South America
life history
demographic statistics
researchers
foraging
Reproduction
Data acquisition
Research Personnel
Demography
hunters

Keywords

  • Cooperative breeding
  • Hunter-gatherers
  • Life history

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)
  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
  • Environmental Science(all)
  • Immunology and Microbiology(all)
  • Medicine(all)

Cite this

Cooperative breeding in South American hunter-gatherers. / Hill, Kim; Hurtado, Ana.

In: Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, Vol. 276, No. 1674, 07.11.2009, p. 3863-3870.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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