CONFIRMATION OF WIDE-FIELD SIGNATURES IN REDSHIFTED 21 cm POWER SPECTRA

Nithyanandan Thyagarajan, Daniel Jacobs, Judd Bowman, N. Barry, A. P. Beardsley, G. Bernardi, F. Briggs, R. J. Cappallo, P. Carroll, A. A. Deshpande, A. De Oliveira-Costa, Joshua S. Dillon, A. Ewall-Wice, L. Feng, L. J. Greenhill, B. J. Hazelton, L. Hernquist, J. N. Hewitt, N. Hurley-Walker, M. Johnston-Hollitt & 35 others D. L. Kaplan, Han Seek Kim, P. Kittiwisit, E. Lenc, J. Line, A. Loeb, C. J. Lonsdale, B. McKinley, S. R. McWhirter, D. A. Mitchell, M. F. Morales, E. Morgan, A. R. Neben, D. Oberoi, A. R. Offringa, S. M. Ord, Sourabh Paul, B. Pindor, J. C. Pober, T. Prabu, P. Procopio, J. Riding, N. Udaya Shankar, Shiv K. Sethi, K. S. Srivani, R. Subrahmanyan, I. S. Sullivan, M. Tegmark, S. J. Tingay, C. M. Trott, R. B. Wayth, R. L. Webster, A. Williams, C. L. Williams, J. S B Wyithe

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

39 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

We confirm our recent prediction of the "pitchfork" foreground signature in power spectra of high-redshift 21 cm measurements where the interferometer is sensitive to large-scale structure on all baselines. This is due to the inherent response of a wide-field instrument and is characterized by enhanced power from foreground emission in Fourier modes adjacent to those considered to be the most sensitive to the cosmological H i signal. In our recent paper, many signatures from the simulation that predicted this feature were validated against Murchison Widefield Array (MWA) data, but this key pitchfork signature was close to the noise level. In this paper, we improve the data sensitivity through the coherent averaging of 12 independent snapshots with identical instrument settings and provide the first confirmation of the prediction with a signal-to-noise ratio >10. This wide-field effect can be mitigated by careful antenna designs that suppress sensitivity near the horizon. Simple models for antenna apertures that have been proposed for future instruments such as the Hydrogen Epoch of Reionization Array and the Square Kilometre Array indicate they should suppress foreground leakage from the pitchfork by ∼40 dB relative to the MWA and significantly increase the likelihood of cosmological signal detection in these critical Fourier modes in the three-dimensional power spectrum.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numberL28
JournalAstrophysical Journal Letters
Volume807
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 10 2015

Fingerprint

signatures
antenna
power spectra
antenna design
signal detection
sensitivity
prediction
predictions
interferometer
signal-to-noise ratio
leakage
horizon
signal to noise ratios
interferometers
antennas
apertures
time measurement
hydrogen
simulation

Keywords

  • cosmology: observations
  • dark ages, reionization, first stars
  • large-scale structure of universe
  • methods: statistical
  • radio continuum: galaxies
  • techniques: interferometric

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Space and Planetary Science
  • Astronomy and Astrophysics

Cite this

CONFIRMATION OF WIDE-FIELD SIGNATURES IN REDSHIFTED 21 cm POWER SPECTRA. / Thyagarajan, Nithyanandan; Jacobs, Daniel; Bowman, Judd; Barry, N.; Beardsley, A. P.; Bernardi, G.; Briggs, F.; Cappallo, R. J.; Carroll, P.; Deshpande, A. A.; De Oliveira-Costa, A.; Dillon, Joshua S.; Ewall-Wice, A.; Feng, L.; Greenhill, L. J.; Hazelton, B. J.; Hernquist, L.; Hewitt, J. N.; Hurley-Walker, N.; Johnston-Hollitt, M.; Kaplan, D. L.; Kim, Han Seek; Kittiwisit, P.; Lenc, E.; Line, J.; Loeb, A.; Lonsdale, C. J.; McKinley, B.; McWhirter, S. R.; Mitchell, D. A.; Morales, M. F.; Morgan, E.; Neben, A. R.; Oberoi, D.; Offringa, A. R.; Ord, S. M.; Paul, Sourabh; Pindor, B.; Pober, J. C.; Prabu, T.; Procopio, P.; Riding, J.; Shankar, N. Udaya; Sethi, Shiv K.; Srivani, K. S.; Subrahmanyan, R.; Sullivan, I. S.; Tegmark, M.; Tingay, S. J.; Trott, C. M.; Wayth, R. B.; Webster, R. L.; Williams, A.; Williams, C. L.; Wyithe, J. S B.

In: Astrophysical Journal Letters, Vol. 807, No. 2, L28, 10.07.2015.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Thyagarajan, N, Jacobs, D, Bowman, J, Barry, N, Beardsley, AP, Bernardi, G, Briggs, F, Cappallo, RJ, Carroll, P, Deshpande, AA, De Oliveira-Costa, A, Dillon, JS, Ewall-Wice, A, Feng, L, Greenhill, LJ, Hazelton, BJ, Hernquist, L, Hewitt, JN, Hurley-Walker, N, Johnston-Hollitt, M, Kaplan, DL, Kim, HS, Kittiwisit, P, Lenc, E, Line, J, Loeb, A, Lonsdale, CJ, McKinley, B, McWhirter, SR, Mitchell, DA, Morales, MF, Morgan, E, Neben, AR, Oberoi, D, Offringa, AR, Ord, SM, Paul, S, Pindor, B, Pober, JC, Prabu, T, Procopio, P, Riding, J, Shankar, NU, Sethi, SK, Srivani, KS, Subrahmanyan, R, Sullivan, IS, Tegmark, M, Tingay, SJ, Trott, CM, Wayth, RB, Webster, RL, Williams, A, Williams, CL & Wyithe, JSB 2015, 'CONFIRMATION OF WIDE-FIELD SIGNATURES IN REDSHIFTED 21 cm POWER SPECTRA', Astrophysical Journal Letters, vol. 807, no. 2, L28. https://doi.org/10.1088/2041-8205/807/2/L28
Thyagarajan, Nithyanandan ; Jacobs, Daniel ; Bowman, Judd ; Barry, N. ; Beardsley, A. P. ; Bernardi, G. ; Briggs, F. ; Cappallo, R. J. ; Carroll, P. ; Deshpande, A. A. ; De Oliveira-Costa, A. ; Dillon, Joshua S. ; Ewall-Wice, A. ; Feng, L. ; Greenhill, L. J. ; Hazelton, B. J. ; Hernquist, L. ; Hewitt, J. N. ; Hurley-Walker, N. ; Johnston-Hollitt, M. ; Kaplan, D. L. ; Kim, Han Seek ; Kittiwisit, P. ; Lenc, E. ; Line, J. ; Loeb, A. ; Lonsdale, C. J. ; McKinley, B. ; McWhirter, S. R. ; Mitchell, D. A. ; Morales, M. F. ; Morgan, E. ; Neben, A. R. ; Oberoi, D. ; Offringa, A. R. ; Ord, S. M. ; Paul, Sourabh ; Pindor, B. ; Pober, J. C. ; Prabu, T. ; Procopio, P. ; Riding, J. ; Shankar, N. Udaya ; Sethi, Shiv K. ; Srivani, K. S. ; Subrahmanyan, R. ; Sullivan, I. S. ; Tegmark, M. ; Tingay, S. J. ; Trott, C. M. ; Wayth, R. B. ; Webster, R. L. ; Williams, A. ; Williams, C. L. ; Wyithe, J. S B. / CONFIRMATION OF WIDE-FIELD SIGNATURES IN REDSHIFTED 21 cm POWER SPECTRA. In: Astrophysical Journal Letters. 2015 ; Vol. 807, No. 2.
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T1 - CONFIRMATION OF WIDE-FIELD SIGNATURES IN REDSHIFTED 21 cm POWER SPECTRA

AU - Thyagarajan, Nithyanandan

AU - Jacobs, Daniel

AU - Bowman, Judd

AU - Barry, N.

AU - Beardsley, A. P.

AU - Bernardi, G.

AU - Briggs, F.

AU - Cappallo, R. J.

AU - Carroll, P.

AU - Deshpande, A. A.

AU - De Oliveira-Costa, A.

AU - Dillon, Joshua S.

AU - Ewall-Wice, A.

AU - Feng, L.

AU - Greenhill, L. J.

AU - Hazelton, B. J.

AU - Hernquist, L.

AU - Hewitt, J. N.

AU - Hurley-Walker, N.

AU - Johnston-Hollitt, M.

AU - Kaplan, D. L.

AU - Kim, Han Seek

AU - Kittiwisit, P.

AU - Lenc, E.

AU - Line, J.

AU - Loeb, A.

AU - Lonsdale, C. J.

AU - McKinley, B.

AU - McWhirter, S. R.

AU - Mitchell, D. A.

AU - Morales, M. F.

AU - Morgan, E.

AU - Neben, A. R.

AU - Oberoi, D.

AU - Offringa, A. R.

AU - Ord, S. M.

AU - Paul, Sourabh

AU - Pindor, B.

AU - Pober, J. C.

AU - Prabu, T.

AU - Procopio, P.

AU - Riding, J.

AU - Shankar, N. Udaya

AU - Sethi, Shiv K.

AU - Srivani, K. S.

AU - Subrahmanyan, R.

AU - Sullivan, I. S.

AU - Tegmark, M.

AU - Tingay, S. J.

AU - Trott, C. M.

AU - Wayth, R. B.

AU - Webster, R. L.

AU - Williams, A.

AU - Williams, C. L.

AU - Wyithe, J. S B

PY - 2015/7/10

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N2 - We confirm our recent prediction of the "pitchfork" foreground signature in power spectra of high-redshift 21 cm measurements where the interferometer is sensitive to large-scale structure on all baselines. This is due to the inherent response of a wide-field instrument and is characterized by enhanced power from foreground emission in Fourier modes adjacent to those considered to be the most sensitive to the cosmological H i signal. In our recent paper, many signatures from the simulation that predicted this feature were validated against Murchison Widefield Array (MWA) data, but this key pitchfork signature was close to the noise level. In this paper, we improve the data sensitivity through the coherent averaging of 12 independent snapshots with identical instrument settings and provide the first confirmation of the prediction with a signal-to-noise ratio >10. This wide-field effect can be mitigated by careful antenna designs that suppress sensitivity near the horizon. Simple models for antenna apertures that have been proposed for future instruments such as the Hydrogen Epoch of Reionization Array and the Square Kilometre Array indicate they should suppress foreground leakage from the pitchfork by ∼40 dB relative to the MWA and significantly increase the likelihood of cosmological signal detection in these critical Fourier modes in the three-dimensional power spectrum.

AB - We confirm our recent prediction of the "pitchfork" foreground signature in power spectra of high-redshift 21 cm measurements where the interferometer is sensitive to large-scale structure on all baselines. This is due to the inherent response of a wide-field instrument and is characterized by enhanced power from foreground emission in Fourier modes adjacent to those considered to be the most sensitive to the cosmological H i signal. In our recent paper, many signatures from the simulation that predicted this feature were validated against Murchison Widefield Array (MWA) data, but this key pitchfork signature was close to the noise level. In this paper, we improve the data sensitivity through the coherent averaging of 12 independent snapshots with identical instrument settings and provide the first confirmation of the prediction with a signal-to-noise ratio >10. This wide-field effect can be mitigated by careful antenna designs that suppress sensitivity near the horizon. Simple models for antenna apertures that have been proposed for future instruments such as the Hydrogen Epoch of Reionization Array and the Square Kilometre Array indicate they should suppress foreground leakage from the pitchfork by ∼40 dB relative to the MWA and significantly increase the likelihood of cosmological signal detection in these critical Fourier modes in the three-dimensional power spectrum.

KW - cosmology: observations

KW - dark ages, reionization, first stars

KW - large-scale structure of universe

KW - methods: statistical

KW - radio continuum: galaxies

KW - techniques: interferometric

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