This chapter reviews research on variables that affect rates of formal volunteering in various sets of territories (nations, provinces/states, counties/districts, communities), usually doing multilevel statistical modeling that simultaneously controls relevant, respondent-variables at the level of individuals. Most attention is given to country-level variables regarding macro-context effects. Results have been less consistent than at the individual level of analysis. At the country level, volunteering rates (referring hereinafter always to formal volunteering/FV) tend to be higher for nations with stronger current democracies, longer time as democracies, more welfare state expenditures per capita, higher and more Protestant religiosity, higher levels of average education, and higher gross domestic product (GDP) per capita. But being part of the Eastern (former communist) Bloc in Europe is a negative factor. In communities, often with inconsistent results, ethnic-racial heterogeneity has negative effects. Special methodological issues are discussed.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Title of host publication||The Palgrave Handbook of Volunteering, Civic Participation, and Nonprofit Associations|
|Number of pages||27|
|State||Published - Jan 1 2017|
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Social Sciences(all)