Computational improvements to multi-scale geographically weighted regression

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40 Scopus citations


Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR) has been broadly used in various fields to model spatially non-stationary relationships. Multi-scale Geographically Weighted Regression (MGWR) is a recent advancement to the classic GWR model. MGWR is superior in capturing multi-scale processes over the traditional single-scale GWR model by using different bandwidths for each covariate. However, the multiscale property of MGWR brings additional computation costs. The calibration process of MGWR involves iterative back-fitting under the additive model (AM) framework. Currently, MGWR can only be applied on small datasets within a tolerable time and is prohibitively time-consuming to run with moderately large datasets (greater than 5,000 observations). In this paper, we propose a parallel implementation that has crucial computational improvements to the MGWR calibration. This improved computational method reduces both memory footprint and runtime to allow MGWR modelling to be applied to moderate-to-large datasets (up to 100,000 observations). These improvements are integrated into the mgwr python package and the MGWR 2.0 software, both of which are freely available to download.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1378-1397
Number of pages20
JournalInternational Journal of Geographical Information Science
Issue number7
StatePublished - Jul 2 2020


  • Geographically weighted regression
  • local modelling
  • multiscale
  • parallel computing
  • spatial analysis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Information Systems
  • Geography, Planning and Development
  • Library and Information Sciences


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