Comparison of the MMPI-2 restructured demoralization scale, depression scale, and malingered mood disorder scale in identifying non-credible symptom reporting in personal injury litigants and disability claimants

George K. Henry, Robert L. Heilbronner, Wiley Mittenberg, Craig Enders, Kristen Domboski

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

11 Scopus citations


A known groups design compared the ability of the 24-item MMPI-2 Restructured Clinical Demoralization Scale (RCd), the 57-item Depression Scale (Scale 2), and the 15-item Malingered Mood Disorder Scale (MMDS) to identify non-credible symptom response sets in 84 personal injury litigants and disability claimants compared to 77 non-litigating head-injured controls. All three scales showed large effect sizes (>0.80). Scale 2 was associated with the largest effect size (2.19), followed by the MMDS (1.65), and the RCd (0.85). Logistic regression analyses revealed that a cutscore of ≥28 on the 57-item Scale 2 was associated with high specificity (96.1%) and sensitivity (76.2%), while a cutscore of ≥16 on the 24-item RCd was less accurate (87% specificity and 50% sensitivity). Cutscores for the MMDS were not calculated as they were reported in a previous study. Results indicated that like the 15-item MMDS, the 57-item MMPI-2 Scale 2 may provide another empirically derived index with known error rates upon which examiners may rely to investigate hypotheses relative to exaggeration of illness-related behavior and impression management in forensic contexts involving PI litigants and disability claimants.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)153-166
Number of pages14
JournalClinical Neuropsychologist
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 1 2009



  • Demoralization scale
  • Depression scale
  • Malingered mood disorder scale
  • Restructured clinical scales

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neuropsychology and Physiological Psychology
  • Developmental and Educational Psychology
  • Clinical Psychology
  • Arts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
  • Psychiatry and Mental health

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