Comparison of the Lees-Haley fake bad scale, Henry-Heilbronner index, and restructured clinical scale 1 in identifying noncredible symptom reporting

George K. Henry, Robert L. Heilbronner, Wiley Mittenberg, Craig Enders, Shianna R. Stanczak

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

14 Scopus citations


A known groups design investigated the comparative predictive validity of the 27-item MMPI-2 Restructured Scale 1 (RC1), the 43-item Lees-Haley Fake Bad Scale (FBS), and the 15-item Henry-Heilbronner Index (HHI) to identify noncredible symptom response sets in 63 personal injury litigants and disability claimants compared to 77 non-litigating head-injured controls. Logistic regression analyses revealed that the HHI and FBS were better predictors of group membership than the RC1. Results suggest that the FBS, HHI, and RC1 may be measuring different constructs. The HHI and FBS reflect an exaggeration of disability or illness-related behavior. Differences in scale construction are discussed. The RC1 may have greater relevance under external incentive conditions involving chronic pain patients, or clinical patients with no external incentive to exaggerate their symptom presentation.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)919-929
Number of pages11
JournalClinical Neuropsychologist
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2007



  • Fake Bad Scale
  • Henry-Heilbronner Index
  • Noncredible symptom reporting
  • Restructured clinical scales

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Psychiatry and Mental health

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