Comparison of anthropometry to DXA: A new prediction equation for men

S. D. Ball, T. S. Altena, Pamela Swan

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

    141 Scopus citations


    Objective: This study compared three professionally recommended anthropometric body composition prediction equations for men to dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and then developed an updated equation, DXA Criterion (DC) from DXA. Design: Cross-sectional. Setting: Exercise Physiology Lab. University of Missouri-Columbia, USA. Subjects: A total of 160 men aged 18-62 y old. Interventions: Percent body fat (%BF) by anthropometry was compared to DXA on the same day. Results: Although %BF was significantly correlated (r=0.923-0.942) (P<0.01) with DXA for all three equations, each equation underestimated %BF (range = 3.1-3.3%) (P<0.01) compared to DXA. The following DC equation for men was created: %BF = 0.465 + 0.180(∑7SF)-0.0002406(∑7SF)2+0 .06619(age); (∑ 7SF=sum of chest, midaxillary, triceps, subscapular, abdomen, suprailiac, thigh; age = years). The predicted residual sum of squares (PRESS) R2 was high (0.90) and the PRESS standard error of estimates was excellent (2.2% at the mean) for the DC equation when applied to our sample of 160 men. Conclusions: The currently recommended anthropometric equations for men underestimate %BF compared to DXA. The DC equation yields a more accurate estimation of %BF in men aged 18-62y old. The results from this study support the need for the current %BF standards and norms for men to be adjusted upward.

    Original languageEnglish (US)
    Pages (from-to)1525-1531
    Number of pages7
    JournalEuropean Journal of Clinical Nutrition
    Issue number11
    StatePublished - Nov 2004


    • Body composition
    • Body fat
    • Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Medicine (miscellaneous)
    • Nutrition and Dietetics


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