Comparing predeparture expectations and post-sojourn reports: A longitudinal study of U.S. students abroad

J. N. Martin, Lisa Bradford, B. Rohrlich

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

29 Scopus citations


This article reports the results of a longitudinal investigation, based on a modified expectancy violations model, of expectations of students studying abroad. Two hundred forty-eight student sojourners described their predeparture expectations concerning 13 aspects of overseas living. Upon their return, these same students completed a similar postreturn survey reporting the degree to which their expectations were met or violated. Pre- and postdeparture data were submitted to regression and correlational analyses. There were three major findings. First, an unexpected finding that sojourners consistently reported that expectations were met or positively violated. Second, the fulfillment/ violation of expectations was related to location of sojourn and somewhat to gender, but not to prior intercultural experience. Finally, there was a positive relationship between the violation of expectations and the overall evaluation of the sojourn experience, supporting the expectancy violations model. Implications for future research are presented.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)87-110
Number of pages24
JournalInternational Journal of Intercultural Relations
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 1 1995


ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Business and International Management
  • Social Psychology
  • Sociology and Political Science

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