Comparative Study of Surface Energies of Native Oxides of Si(100) and Si(111) via Three Liquid Contact Angle Analysis

Saaketh R. Narayan, Jack M. Day, Harshini L. Thinakaran, Nicole Herbots, Michelle E. Bertram, Christian E. Cornejo, Timoteo C. Diaz, Karen L. Kavanagh, Robert Culbertson, Franscesca J. Ark, Sukesh Ram, Mark W. Mangus, Rafiqul Islam

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

2 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The effects of crystal orientation and doping on the surface energy, γT, of native oxides of Si(100) and Si(111) are measured via Three Liquid Contact Angle Analysis (3LCAA) to extract γT, while Ion Beam Analysis (IBA) is used to detect Oxygen. During 3LCAA, contact angles for three liquids are measured with photographs via the Drop and Reflection Operative Program (DROP™). DROP™ removes subjectivity in image analysis, and yields reproducible contact angles within < ±1°. Unlike to the Sessile Drop Method, DROP can yield relative errors < 3% on sets of 20-30 drops. Native oxides on 5 x 1013 B/cm3 p- doped Si(100) wafers, as received in sealed, 25 wafer teflon boats continuously stored in Class 100/ISO 5 conditions at 24.5°C in 25% controlled humidity, are found to be hydrophilic. Their γT, 52.5 ± 1.5 mJ/m2, is reproducible between four boats from three sources, and 9% greater than γT of native oxides on n- doped Si(111), which averages 48.1 ± 1.6 mJ/m2 on four 4 Si(111) wafers. IBA combining 16O nuclear resonance with channeling detects 30% more oxygen on native oxides of Si(111) than Si(100). While γT should increase on thinner, more defective oxides, Lifshitz-Van der Waals interactions γLW on native oxides of Si(100) remain at 36 ± 0.4 mJ/m2, equal to γLW on Si(111), 36 ± 0.6 mJ/m2, since γLW arises from the same SiO2 molecules. Native oxides on 4.5 x 1018 B/cm3 p+ doped Si(100) yield a γT of 39 ± 1 mJ/m2, as they are thicker per IBA. In summary, 3LCAA and IBA can detect reproducibly and accurately, within a few %, changes in the surface energy of native oxides due to thickness and surface composition arising from doping or crystal structure, if conducted in well controlled clean room conditions for measurements and storage.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)3379-3390
Number of pages12
JournalMRS Advances
Volume3
Issue number57-58
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2018

Fingerprint

Interfacial energy
Oxides
surface energy
Contact angle
oxides
Liquids
liquids
Ion beams
ion beams
boats
Boats
wafers
Doping (additives)
Oxygen
clean rooms
Clean rooms
teflon (trademark)
Polytetrafluoroethylene
oxygen
photographs

Keywords

  • ion beam analysis
  • oxide
  • Si
  • surface chemistry

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Mechanical Engineering
  • Mechanics of Materials
  • Materials Science(all)
  • Condensed Matter Physics

Cite this

Narayan, S. R., Day, J. M., Thinakaran, H. L., Herbots, N., Bertram, M. E., Cornejo, C. E., ... Islam, R. (2018). Comparative Study of Surface Energies of Native Oxides of Si(100) and Si(111) via Three Liquid Contact Angle Analysis. MRS Advances, 3(57-58), 3379-3390. https://doi.org/10.1557/adv.2018.473

Comparative Study of Surface Energies of Native Oxides of Si(100) and Si(111) via Three Liquid Contact Angle Analysis. / Narayan, Saaketh R.; Day, Jack M.; Thinakaran, Harshini L.; Herbots, Nicole; Bertram, Michelle E.; Cornejo, Christian E.; Diaz, Timoteo C.; Kavanagh, Karen L.; Culbertson, Robert; Ark, Franscesca J.; Ram, Sukesh; Mangus, Mark W.; Islam, Rafiqul.

In: MRS Advances, Vol. 3, No. 57-58, 01.01.2018, p. 3379-3390.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Narayan, SR, Day, JM, Thinakaran, HL, Herbots, N, Bertram, ME, Cornejo, CE, Diaz, TC, Kavanagh, KL, Culbertson, R, Ark, FJ, Ram, S, Mangus, MW & Islam, R 2018, 'Comparative Study of Surface Energies of Native Oxides of Si(100) and Si(111) via Three Liquid Contact Angle Analysis', MRS Advances, vol. 3, no. 57-58, pp. 3379-3390. https://doi.org/10.1557/adv.2018.473
Narayan SR, Day JM, Thinakaran HL, Herbots N, Bertram ME, Cornejo CE et al. Comparative Study of Surface Energies of Native Oxides of Si(100) and Si(111) via Three Liquid Contact Angle Analysis. MRS Advances. 2018 Jan 1;3(57-58):3379-3390. https://doi.org/10.1557/adv.2018.473
Narayan, Saaketh R. ; Day, Jack M. ; Thinakaran, Harshini L. ; Herbots, Nicole ; Bertram, Michelle E. ; Cornejo, Christian E. ; Diaz, Timoteo C. ; Kavanagh, Karen L. ; Culbertson, Robert ; Ark, Franscesca J. ; Ram, Sukesh ; Mangus, Mark W. ; Islam, Rafiqul. / Comparative Study of Surface Energies of Native Oxides of Si(100) and Si(111) via Three Liquid Contact Angle Analysis. In: MRS Advances. 2018 ; Vol. 3, No. 57-58. pp. 3379-3390.
@article{c4d5cbc48c0743a4a71de521d89b6ed2,
title = "Comparative Study of Surface Energies of Native Oxides of Si(100) and Si(111) via Three Liquid Contact Angle Analysis",
abstract = "The effects of crystal orientation and doping on the surface energy, γT, of native oxides of Si(100) and Si(111) are measured via Three Liquid Contact Angle Analysis (3LCAA) to extract γT, while Ion Beam Analysis (IBA) is used to detect Oxygen. During 3LCAA, contact angles for three liquids are measured with photographs via the Drop and Reflection Operative Program (DROP™). DROP™ removes subjectivity in image analysis, and yields reproducible contact angles within < ±1°. Unlike to the Sessile Drop Method, DROP can yield relative errors < 3{\%} on sets of 20-30 drops. Native oxides on 5 x 1013 B/cm3 p- doped Si(100) wafers, as received in sealed, 25 wafer teflon boats continuously stored in Class 100/ISO 5 conditions at 24.5°C in 25{\%} controlled humidity, are found to be hydrophilic. Their γT, 52.5 ± 1.5 mJ/m2, is reproducible between four boats from three sources, and 9{\%} greater than γT of native oxides on n- doped Si(111), which averages 48.1 ± 1.6 mJ/m2 on four 4 Si(111) wafers. IBA combining 16O nuclear resonance with channeling detects 30{\%} more oxygen on native oxides of Si(111) than Si(100). While γT should increase on thinner, more defective oxides, Lifshitz-Van der Waals interactions γLW on native oxides of Si(100) remain at 36 ± 0.4 mJ/m2, equal to γLW on Si(111), 36 ± 0.6 mJ/m2, since γLW arises from the same SiO2 molecules. Native oxides on 4.5 x 1018 B/cm3 p+ doped Si(100) yield a γT of 39 ± 1 mJ/m2, as they are thicker per IBA. In summary, 3LCAA and IBA can detect reproducibly and accurately, within a few {\%}, changes in the surface energy of native oxides due to thickness and surface composition arising from doping or crystal structure, if conducted in well controlled clean room conditions for measurements and storage.",
keywords = "ion beam analysis, oxide, Si, surface chemistry",
author = "Narayan, {Saaketh R.} and Day, {Jack M.} and Thinakaran, {Harshini L.} and Nicole Herbots and Bertram, {Michelle E.} and Cornejo, {Christian E.} and Diaz, {Timoteo C.} and Kavanagh, {Karen L.} and Robert Culbertson and Ark, {Franscesca J.} and Sukesh Ram and Mangus, {Mark W.} and Rafiqul Islam",
year = "2018",
month = "1",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1557/adv.2018.473",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "3",
pages = "3379--3390",
journal = "MRS Advances",
issn = "2059-8521",
number = "57-58",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Comparative Study of Surface Energies of Native Oxides of Si(100) and Si(111) via Three Liquid Contact Angle Analysis

AU - Narayan, Saaketh R.

AU - Day, Jack M.

AU - Thinakaran, Harshini L.

AU - Herbots, Nicole

AU - Bertram, Michelle E.

AU - Cornejo, Christian E.

AU - Diaz, Timoteo C.

AU - Kavanagh, Karen L.

AU - Culbertson, Robert

AU - Ark, Franscesca J.

AU - Ram, Sukesh

AU - Mangus, Mark W.

AU - Islam, Rafiqul

PY - 2018/1/1

Y1 - 2018/1/1

N2 - The effects of crystal orientation and doping on the surface energy, γT, of native oxides of Si(100) and Si(111) are measured via Three Liquid Contact Angle Analysis (3LCAA) to extract γT, while Ion Beam Analysis (IBA) is used to detect Oxygen. During 3LCAA, contact angles for three liquids are measured with photographs via the Drop and Reflection Operative Program (DROP™). DROP™ removes subjectivity in image analysis, and yields reproducible contact angles within < ±1°. Unlike to the Sessile Drop Method, DROP can yield relative errors < 3% on sets of 20-30 drops. Native oxides on 5 x 1013 B/cm3 p- doped Si(100) wafers, as received in sealed, 25 wafer teflon boats continuously stored in Class 100/ISO 5 conditions at 24.5°C in 25% controlled humidity, are found to be hydrophilic. Their γT, 52.5 ± 1.5 mJ/m2, is reproducible between four boats from three sources, and 9% greater than γT of native oxides on n- doped Si(111), which averages 48.1 ± 1.6 mJ/m2 on four 4 Si(111) wafers. IBA combining 16O nuclear resonance with channeling detects 30% more oxygen on native oxides of Si(111) than Si(100). While γT should increase on thinner, more defective oxides, Lifshitz-Van der Waals interactions γLW on native oxides of Si(100) remain at 36 ± 0.4 mJ/m2, equal to γLW on Si(111), 36 ± 0.6 mJ/m2, since γLW arises from the same SiO2 molecules. Native oxides on 4.5 x 1018 B/cm3 p+ doped Si(100) yield a γT of 39 ± 1 mJ/m2, as they are thicker per IBA. In summary, 3LCAA and IBA can detect reproducibly and accurately, within a few %, changes in the surface energy of native oxides due to thickness and surface composition arising from doping or crystal structure, if conducted in well controlled clean room conditions for measurements and storage.

AB - The effects of crystal orientation and doping on the surface energy, γT, of native oxides of Si(100) and Si(111) are measured via Three Liquid Contact Angle Analysis (3LCAA) to extract γT, while Ion Beam Analysis (IBA) is used to detect Oxygen. During 3LCAA, contact angles for three liquids are measured with photographs via the Drop and Reflection Operative Program (DROP™). DROP™ removes subjectivity in image analysis, and yields reproducible contact angles within < ±1°. Unlike to the Sessile Drop Method, DROP can yield relative errors < 3% on sets of 20-30 drops. Native oxides on 5 x 1013 B/cm3 p- doped Si(100) wafers, as received in sealed, 25 wafer teflon boats continuously stored in Class 100/ISO 5 conditions at 24.5°C in 25% controlled humidity, are found to be hydrophilic. Their γT, 52.5 ± 1.5 mJ/m2, is reproducible between four boats from three sources, and 9% greater than γT of native oxides on n- doped Si(111), which averages 48.1 ± 1.6 mJ/m2 on four 4 Si(111) wafers. IBA combining 16O nuclear resonance with channeling detects 30% more oxygen on native oxides of Si(111) than Si(100). While γT should increase on thinner, more defective oxides, Lifshitz-Van der Waals interactions γLW on native oxides of Si(100) remain at 36 ± 0.4 mJ/m2, equal to γLW on Si(111), 36 ± 0.6 mJ/m2, since γLW arises from the same SiO2 molecules. Native oxides on 4.5 x 1018 B/cm3 p+ doped Si(100) yield a γT of 39 ± 1 mJ/m2, as they are thicker per IBA. In summary, 3LCAA and IBA can detect reproducibly and accurately, within a few %, changes in the surface energy of native oxides due to thickness and surface composition arising from doping or crystal structure, if conducted in well controlled clean room conditions for measurements and storage.

KW - ion beam analysis

KW - oxide

KW - Si

KW - surface chemistry

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85054905928&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=85054905928&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1557/adv.2018.473

DO - 10.1557/adv.2018.473

M3 - Article

VL - 3

SP - 3379

EP - 3390

JO - MRS Advances

JF - MRS Advances

SN - 2059-8521

IS - 57-58

ER -