A simple, rapid, selective, and cost-effective colorimetric assay for Cr3+ and Eu3+ ion detection has been developed using functionalized gold nanoparticles. Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were prepared using HAuCl4, where sodium citrate is a reducing agent as well as a capping agent, and then functionalized with 1,2,3-triazole-4,5-dicarboxylic acid (TADA). Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and Raman spectroscopies suggested that TADA was functionalized on the surface of AuNPs through the N atom of triazole. The TADA-functionalized gold nanoparticles (TADA@AuNPs) simultaneously detect Cr3+ and Eu3+ ions from aqueous solution and showed different responses to the two metal ions (Cr3+ and Eu3+) based on an aggregation-induced color change of AuNPs. They showed a color change from wine red to blue, which was easily detected by the naked eye, as well as by UV-visible and FTIR spectroscopies. The surface plasmon resonance absorbances of Cr3+ and Eu3+ are 633 and 671 nm, respectively, when Cr3+ and Eu3+ react with TADA@AuNPs and showed good linearity with Cr3+ and Eu3+ concentrations with detection limits 5.89 nM and 4.30 μM, respectively (S/N = 3). The TADA@AuNPs showed excellent selectivity toward Cr3+ and Eu3+ compared to those of the 16 different metal ions. We had also tested the selectivity of TADA@AuNPs toward Eu3+ compared to that of the other 10 lanthanide systems. Optimal detection was achieved toward Cr3+ and Eu3+ ions in the pH range 4-10. In addition, TADA@AuNPs were applied to detect Cr3+ and Eu3+ ions from lake water showing low interference.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
- Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
- Surfaces, Coatings and Films