Many forms of programmable matter have been proposed for various tasks. We use an abstract model of self-organizing particle systems for programmable matter which could be used for a variety of applications, including smart paint and coating materials for engineering or programmable cells for medical uses. Previous research using this model has focused on shape formation and other spatial configuration problems (e.g., coating and compression). In this work we study foundational computational tasks that exceed the capabilities of the individual constant size memory of a particle, such as implementing a counter and matrix-vector multiplication. These tasks represent new ways to use these self-organizing systems, which, in conjunction with previous shape and configuration work, make the systems useful for a wider variety of tasks. They can also leverage the distributed and dynamic nature of the self-organizing system to be more efficient and adaptable than on traditional linear computing hardware. Finally, we demonstrate applications of similar types of computations with self-organizing systems to image processing, with implementations of image color transformation and edge detection algorithms.