We investigated the co-occurrence of and cross-informant agreement on early adolescents’ shyness, unsociability, and avoidance measured by self- and peer reports for fifth to eighth graders (N = 383; 51% male) in the United States. Avoidance was significantly and positively associated with shyness and unsociability based on peer reports and self-reports. Furthermore, 45% and 30% of peer- and self-reported withdrawn adolescents had multiple motivations for withdrawal, suggesting prevalent co-occurrence of withdrawal subtypes. Cross-informant agreement was moderate for shyness and weak for unsociability and avoidance. We draw attention to the complexity of motivations underlying withdrawal, theorize about subtype co-occurrence, and discuss challenges and opportunities related to peer-reported unsociability and avoidance.
- social withdrawal
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Developmental and Educational Psychology
- Sociology and Political Science
- Social Sciences (miscellaneous)