Circulating bile acids in healthy adults respond differently to a dietary pattern characterized by whole grains, legumes and fruits and vegetables compared to a diet high in refined grains and added sugars

A randomized, controlled, crossover feeding study

Bigina N.R. Ginos, Sandi L. Navarro, Yvonne Schwarz, Haiwei Gu, Dongfang Wang, Timothy W. Randolph, Ali Shojaie, Meredith A.J. Hullar, Paul D. Lampe, Mario Kratz, Marian L. Neuhouser, Daniel Raftery, Johanna W. Lampe

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

4 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Objective: The effects of diets high in refined grains on biliary and colonic bile acids have been investigated extensively. However, the effects of diets high in whole versus refined grains on circulating bile acids, which can influence glucose homeostasis and inflammation through activation of farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and G protein-coupled bile acid receptor 1 (TGR5), have not been studied. Materials and Methods: We conducted a secondary analysis from a randomized controlled crossover feeding trial (NCT00622661) in 80 healthy adults (40 women/40 men, age 18–45 years) from the greater Seattle Area, half of which were normal weight (BMI 18.5–25.0 kg/m2) and half overweight to obese (BMI 28.0–39.9 kg/m2). Participants consumed two four-week controlled diets in randomized order: 1) a whole grain diet (WG diet), designed to be low in glycemic load (GL), high in whole grains, legumes, and fruits and vegetables, and 2) a refined grain diet (RG diet), designed to be high GL, high in refined grains and added sugars, separated by a four-week washout period. Quantitative targeted analysis of 55 bile acid species in fasting plasma was performed using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Concentrations of glucose, insulin, and CRP were measured in fasting serum. Linear mixed models were used to test the effects of diet on bile acid concentrations, and determine the association between plasma bile acid concentrations and HOMA-IR and CRP. Benjamini-Hochberg false discovery rate (FDR) < 0.05 was used to control for multiple testing. Results: A total of 29 plasma bile acids were reliably detected and retained for analysis. Taurolithocholic acid (TLCA), taurocholic acid (TCA) and glycocholic acid (GCA) were statistically significantly higher after the WG compared to the RG diet (FDR < 0.05). There were no significant differences by BMI or sex. When evaluating the association of bile acids and HOMA-IR, GCA, taurochenodeoxycholic acid, ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA), 5β‑cholanic acid‑3β,12α‑diol, 5‑cholanic acid‑3β‑ol, and glycodeoxycholic acid (GDCA) were statistically significantly positively associated with HOMA-IR individually, and as a group, total, 12α‑hydroxylated, primary and secondary bile acids were also significant (FDR < 0.05). When stratifying by BMI, chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA), cholic acid (CA), UDCA, 5β-cholanic acid-3β, deoxycholic acid, and total, 12α-hydroxylated, primary and secondary bile acid groups were significantly positively associated with HOMA-IR among overweight to obese individuals (FDR < 0.05). When stratifying by sex, GCA, CDCA, TCA, CA, UDCA, GDCA, glycolithocholic acid (GLCA), total, primary, 12α‑hydroxylated, and glycine-conjugated bile acids were significantly associated with HOMA-IR among women, and CDCA, GDCA, and GLCA were significantly associated among men (FDR < 0.05). There were no significant associations between bile acids and CRP. Conclusions: Diets with comparable macronutrient and energy composition, but differing in carbohydrate source, affected fasting plasma bile acids differently. Specifically, a diet characterized by whole grains, legumes, and fruits and vegetables compared to a diet high in refined grains and added sugars led to modest increases in concentrations of TLCA, TCA and GCA, ligands for FXR and TGR5, which may have beneficial effects on glucose homeostasis.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)197-204
Number of pages8
JournalMetabolism: Clinical and Experimental
Volume83
DOIs
StatePublished - Jun 1 2018
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Bile Acids and Salts
Fabaceae
Vegetables
Cross-Over Studies
Fruit
Diet
Glycocholic Acid
Glycodeoxycholic Acid
Chenodeoxycholic Acid
Ursodeoxycholic Acid
Taurocholic Acid
Taurolithocholic Acid
Cholic Acid
Fasting
Glucose
Whole Grains
Homeostasis
Taurochenodeoxycholic Acid
Deoxycholic Acid
G-Protein-Coupled Receptors

Keywords

  • Bile acid
  • Dietary patterns
  • Feeding study
  • FXR
  • Insulin resistance
  • Whole grains

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Endocrinology

Cite this

Circulating bile acids in healthy adults respond differently to a dietary pattern characterized by whole grains, legumes and fruits and vegetables compared to a diet high in refined grains and added sugars : A randomized, controlled, crossover feeding study. / Ginos, Bigina N.R.; Navarro, Sandi L.; Schwarz, Yvonne; Gu, Haiwei; Wang, Dongfang; Randolph, Timothy W.; Shojaie, Ali; Hullar, Meredith A.J.; Lampe, Paul D.; Kratz, Mario; Neuhouser, Marian L.; Raftery, Daniel; Lampe, Johanna W.

In: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental, Vol. 83, 01.06.2018, p. 197-204.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Ginos, Bigina N.R. ; Navarro, Sandi L. ; Schwarz, Yvonne ; Gu, Haiwei ; Wang, Dongfang ; Randolph, Timothy W. ; Shojaie, Ali ; Hullar, Meredith A.J. ; Lampe, Paul D. ; Kratz, Mario ; Neuhouser, Marian L. ; Raftery, Daniel ; Lampe, Johanna W. / Circulating bile acids in healthy adults respond differently to a dietary pattern characterized by whole grains, legumes and fruits and vegetables compared to a diet high in refined grains and added sugars : A randomized, controlled, crossover feeding study. In: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental. 2018 ; Vol. 83. pp. 197-204.
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abstract = "Objective: The effects of diets high in refined grains on biliary and colonic bile acids have been investigated extensively. However, the effects of diets high in whole versus refined grains on circulating bile acids, which can influence glucose homeostasis and inflammation through activation of farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and G protein-coupled bile acid receptor 1 (TGR5), have not been studied. Materials and Methods: We conducted a secondary analysis from a randomized controlled crossover feeding trial (NCT00622661) in 80 healthy adults (40 women/40 men, age 18–45 years) from the greater Seattle Area, half of which were normal weight (BMI 18.5–25.0 kg/m2) and half overweight to obese (BMI 28.0–39.9 kg/m2). Participants consumed two four-week controlled diets in randomized order: 1) a whole grain diet (WG diet), designed to be low in glycemic load (GL), high in whole grains, legumes, and fruits and vegetables, and 2) a refined grain diet (RG diet), designed to be high GL, high in refined grains and added sugars, separated by a four-week washout period. Quantitative targeted analysis of 55 bile acid species in fasting plasma was performed using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Concentrations of glucose, insulin, and CRP were measured in fasting serum. Linear mixed models were used to test the effects of diet on bile acid concentrations, and determine the association between plasma bile acid concentrations and HOMA-IR and CRP. Benjamini-Hochberg false discovery rate (FDR) < 0.05 was used to control for multiple testing. Results: A total of 29 plasma bile acids were reliably detected and retained for analysis. Taurolithocholic acid (TLCA), taurocholic acid (TCA) and glycocholic acid (GCA) were statistically significantly higher after the WG compared to the RG diet (FDR < 0.05). There were no significant differences by BMI or sex. When evaluating the association of bile acids and HOMA-IR, GCA, taurochenodeoxycholic acid, ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA), 5β‑cholanic acid‑3β,12α‑diol, 5‑cholanic acid‑3β‑ol, and glycodeoxycholic acid (GDCA) were statistically significantly positively associated with HOMA-IR individually, and as a group, total, 12α‑hydroxylated, primary and secondary bile acids were also significant (FDR < 0.05). When stratifying by BMI, chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA), cholic acid (CA), UDCA, 5β-cholanic acid-3β, deoxycholic acid, and total, 12α-hydroxylated, primary and secondary bile acid groups were significantly positively associated with HOMA-IR among overweight to obese individuals (FDR < 0.05). When stratifying by sex, GCA, CDCA, TCA, CA, UDCA, GDCA, glycolithocholic acid (GLCA), total, primary, 12α‑hydroxylated, and glycine-conjugated bile acids were significantly associated with HOMA-IR among women, and CDCA, GDCA, and GLCA were significantly associated among men (FDR < 0.05). There were no significant associations between bile acids and CRP. Conclusions: Diets with comparable macronutrient and energy composition, but differing in carbohydrate source, affected fasting plasma bile acids differently. Specifically, a diet characterized by whole grains, legumes, and fruits and vegetables compared to a diet high in refined grains and added sugars led to modest increases in concentrations of TLCA, TCA and GCA, ligands for FXR and TGR5, which may have beneficial effects on glucose homeostasis.",
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author = "Ginos, {Bigina N.R.} and Navarro, {Sandi L.} and Yvonne Schwarz and Haiwei Gu and Dongfang Wang and Randolph, {Timothy W.} and Ali Shojaie and Hullar, {Meredith A.J.} and Lampe, {Paul D.} and Mario Kratz and Neuhouser, {Marian L.} and Daniel Raftery and Lampe, {Johanna W.}",
year = "2018",
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TY - JOUR

T1 - Circulating bile acids in healthy adults respond differently to a dietary pattern characterized by whole grains, legumes and fruits and vegetables compared to a diet high in refined grains and added sugars

T2 - A randomized, controlled, crossover feeding study

AU - Ginos, Bigina N.R.

AU - Navarro, Sandi L.

AU - Schwarz, Yvonne

AU - Gu, Haiwei

AU - Wang, Dongfang

AU - Randolph, Timothy W.

AU - Shojaie, Ali

AU - Hullar, Meredith A.J.

AU - Lampe, Paul D.

AU - Kratz, Mario

AU - Neuhouser, Marian L.

AU - Raftery, Daniel

AU - Lampe, Johanna W.

PY - 2018/6/1

Y1 - 2018/6/1

N2 - Objective: The effects of diets high in refined grains on biliary and colonic bile acids have been investigated extensively. However, the effects of diets high in whole versus refined grains on circulating bile acids, which can influence glucose homeostasis and inflammation through activation of farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and G protein-coupled bile acid receptor 1 (TGR5), have not been studied. Materials and Methods: We conducted a secondary analysis from a randomized controlled crossover feeding trial (NCT00622661) in 80 healthy adults (40 women/40 men, age 18–45 years) from the greater Seattle Area, half of which were normal weight (BMI 18.5–25.0 kg/m2) and half overweight to obese (BMI 28.0–39.9 kg/m2). Participants consumed two four-week controlled diets in randomized order: 1) a whole grain diet (WG diet), designed to be low in glycemic load (GL), high in whole grains, legumes, and fruits and vegetables, and 2) a refined grain diet (RG diet), designed to be high GL, high in refined grains and added sugars, separated by a four-week washout period. Quantitative targeted analysis of 55 bile acid species in fasting plasma was performed using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Concentrations of glucose, insulin, and CRP were measured in fasting serum. Linear mixed models were used to test the effects of diet on bile acid concentrations, and determine the association between plasma bile acid concentrations and HOMA-IR and CRP. Benjamini-Hochberg false discovery rate (FDR) < 0.05 was used to control for multiple testing. Results: A total of 29 plasma bile acids were reliably detected and retained for analysis. Taurolithocholic acid (TLCA), taurocholic acid (TCA) and glycocholic acid (GCA) were statistically significantly higher after the WG compared to the RG diet (FDR < 0.05). There were no significant differences by BMI or sex. When evaluating the association of bile acids and HOMA-IR, GCA, taurochenodeoxycholic acid, ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA), 5β‑cholanic acid‑3β,12α‑diol, 5‑cholanic acid‑3β‑ol, and glycodeoxycholic acid (GDCA) were statistically significantly positively associated with HOMA-IR individually, and as a group, total, 12α‑hydroxylated, primary and secondary bile acids were also significant (FDR < 0.05). When stratifying by BMI, chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA), cholic acid (CA), UDCA, 5β-cholanic acid-3β, deoxycholic acid, and total, 12α-hydroxylated, primary and secondary bile acid groups were significantly positively associated with HOMA-IR among overweight to obese individuals (FDR < 0.05). When stratifying by sex, GCA, CDCA, TCA, CA, UDCA, GDCA, glycolithocholic acid (GLCA), total, primary, 12α‑hydroxylated, and glycine-conjugated bile acids were significantly associated with HOMA-IR among women, and CDCA, GDCA, and GLCA were significantly associated among men (FDR < 0.05). There were no significant associations between bile acids and CRP. Conclusions: Diets with comparable macronutrient and energy composition, but differing in carbohydrate source, affected fasting plasma bile acids differently. Specifically, a diet characterized by whole grains, legumes, and fruits and vegetables compared to a diet high in refined grains and added sugars led to modest increases in concentrations of TLCA, TCA and GCA, ligands for FXR and TGR5, which may have beneficial effects on glucose homeostasis.

AB - Objective: The effects of diets high in refined grains on biliary and colonic bile acids have been investigated extensively. However, the effects of diets high in whole versus refined grains on circulating bile acids, which can influence glucose homeostasis and inflammation through activation of farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and G protein-coupled bile acid receptor 1 (TGR5), have not been studied. Materials and Methods: We conducted a secondary analysis from a randomized controlled crossover feeding trial (NCT00622661) in 80 healthy adults (40 women/40 men, age 18–45 years) from the greater Seattle Area, half of which were normal weight (BMI 18.5–25.0 kg/m2) and half overweight to obese (BMI 28.0–39.9 kg/m2). Participants consumed two four-week controlled diets in randomized order: 1) a whole grain diet (WG diet), designed to be low in glycemic load (GL), high in whole grains, legumes, and fruits and vegetables, and 2) a refined grain diet (RG diet), designed to be high GL, high in refined grains and added sugars, separated by a four-week washout period. Quantitative targeted analysis of 55 bile acid species in fasting plasma was performed using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Concentrations of glucose, insulin, and CRP were measured in fasting serum. Linear mixed models were used to test the effects of diet on bile acid concentrations, and determine the association between plasma bile acid concentrations and HOMA-IR and CRP. Benjamini-Hochberg false discovery rate (FDR) < 0.05 was used to control for multiple testing. Results: A total of 29 plasma bile acids were reliably detected and retained for analysis. Taurolithocholic acid (TLCA), taurocholic acid (TCA) and glycocholic acid (GCA) were statistically significantly higher after the WG compared to the RG diet (FDR < 0.05). There were no significant differences by BMI or sex. When evaluating the association of bile acids and HOMA-IR, GCA, taurochenodeoxycholic acid, ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA), 5β‑cholanic acid‑3β,12α‑diol, 5‑cholanic acid‑3β‑ol, and glycodeoxycholic acid (GDCA) were statistically significantly positively associated with HOMA-IR individually, and as a group, total, 12α‑hydroxylated, primary and secondary bile acids were also significant (FDR < 0.05). When stratifying by BMI, chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA), cholic acid (CA), UDCA, 5β-cholanic acid-3β, deoxycholic acid, and total, 12α-hydroxylated, primary and secondary bile acid groups were significantly positively associated with HOMA-IR among overweight to obese individuals (FDR < 0.05). When stratifying by sex, GCA, CDCA, TCA, CA, UDCA, GDCA, glycolithocholic acid (GLCA), total, primary, 12α‑hydroxylated, and glycine-conjugated bile acids were significantly associated with HOMA-IR among women, and CDCA, GDCA, and GLCA were significantly associated among men (FDR < 0.05). There were no significant associations between bile acids and CRP. Conclusions: Diets with comparable macronutrient and energy composition, but differing in carbohydrate source, affected fasting plasma bile acids differently. Specifically, a diet characterized by whole grains, legumes, and fruits and vegetables compared to a diet high in refined grains and added sugars led to modest increases in concentrations of TLCA, TCA and GCA, ligands for FXR and TGR5, which may have beneficial effects on glucose homeostasis.

KW - Bile acid

KW - Dietary patterns

KW - Feeding study

KW - FXR

KW - Insulin resistance

KW - Whole grains

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