Introduction: Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is an aggressive and nearly always fatal tumor of the biliary tract. Purpose: This review explores risk factors, epidemiology, current diagnostic approaches, and treatment of CCA arising in patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC). Methods: We review latest recommendations about screening strategies to enable the early detection of CCA in PSC, using CA 19-9 and ultrasound imaging, as well as fluorescent in situ hybridization techniques to enhance the accuracy of biliary cytology. We also review the emerging role of liver transplantation.
- Primary sclerosing cholangitis
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