Chemical and semiconducting properties of NO2-activated H-terminated diamond

M. W. Geis, T. H. Fedynyshyn, M. E. Plaut, T. C. Wade, C. H. Wuorio, S. A. Vitale, J. O. Varghese, T. A. Grotjohn, Robert Nemanich, M. A. Hollis

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

4 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The H-terminated surface of diamond when activated with NO2 produces a surface conduction layer that has been used to make field effect transistors (FETs). Previous reports have suggested that during NO2 exposure (NO2-activation), NO2 forms on the diamond surface and generates positive carriers (holes) in the diamond, making the diamond surface conductive. We report here on X-ray-photoelectron-spectroscopy (XPS) surface characterization of single crystal diamonds and on infrared absorption of diamond powder. After activation, XPS showed the presence of N atoms on the diamond surface, but infrared absorption found no evidence of NO2 , but instead NO3 is present on the diamond surface. Two wet chemistry techniques determined the concentration of NO3 per milligram of diamond powder. With the powder's surface area measured by the BET technique, the surface NO3 concentration was measured to be between 6.2 × 1013 and 8.2 × 1013 cm−2. This is in the same range as the carrier densities, 3 × 1013 to 9 × 1013 cm−2, determined by Hall mobility and surface conductivity measurements of single crystal diamonds. Using similar techniques, the concentration of NO2 was determined to be <1012 cm−2. Both the surface conductance and the surface H atoms are stable in dry nitrogen, with or without NO2-activation, but the surface conductance, the concentrations of H atoms both with and without activation and NO3 decrease when exposed to laboratory air over a period of hours to days. Infrared absorption measurements showed the reduction of surface NO3 and H atoms during laboratory air exposure, but gave no indication of what reactions are responsible for their loss in laboratory air.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)86-94
Number of pages9
JournalDiamond and Related Materials
Volume84
DOIs
StatePublished - Apr 1 2018

Fingerprint

Diamond
chemical properties
Diamonds
diamonds
Infrared absorption
Chemical activation
activation
Powders
infrared absorption
Atoms
atoms
air
X ray photoelectron spectroscopy
Air
photoelectron spectroscopy
Single crystals
Hall mobility
single crystals
Field effect transistors
Carrier concentration

Keywords

  • Diamond
  • Hydrogen-termination
  • Molecular adsorption
  • Nitrogen dioxide

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Chemistry(all)
  • Mechanical Engineering
  • Physics and Astronomy(all)
  • Materials Chemistry
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering

Cite this

Geis, M. W., Fedynyshyn, T. H., Plaut, M. E., Wade, T. C., Wuorio, C. H., Vitale, S. A., ... Hollis, M. A. (2018). Chemical and semiconducting properties of NO2-activated H-terminated diamond. Diamond and Related Materials, 84, 86-94. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.diamond.2018.03.002

Chemical and semiconducting properties of NO2-activated H-terminated diamond. / Geis, M. W.; Fedynyshyn, T. H.; Plaut, M. E.; Wade, T. C.; Wuorio, C. H.; Vitale, S. A.; Varghese, J. O.; Grotjohn, T. A.; Nemanich, Robert; Hollis, M. A.

In: Diamond and Related Materials, Vol. 84, 01.04.2018, p. 86-94.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Geis, MW, Fedynyshyn, TH, Plaut, ME, Wade, TC, Wuorio, CH, Vitale, SA, Varghese, JO, Grotjohn, TA, Nemanich, R & Hollis, MA 2018, 'Chemical and semiconducting properties of NO2-activated H-terminated diamond', Diamond and Related Materials, vol. 84, pp. 86-94. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.diamond.2018.03.002
Geis, M. W. ; Fedynyshyn, T. H. ; Plaut, M. E. ; Wade, T. C. ; Wuorio, C. H. ; Vitale, S. A. ; Varghese, J. O. ; Grotjohn, T. A. ; Nemanich, Robert ; Hollis, M. A. / Chemical and semiconducting properties of NO2-activated H-terminated diamond. In: Diamond and Related Materials. 2018 ; Vol. 84. pp. 86-94.
@article{4ad6335b93ec4c3cbaa378eda25fef39,
title = "Chemical and semiconducting properties of NO2-activated H-terminated diamond",
abstract = "The H-terminated surface of diamond when activated with NO2 produces a surface conduction layer that has been used to make field effect transistors (FETs). Previous reports have suggested that during NO2 exposure (NO2-activation), NO2 − forms on the diamond surface and generates positive carriers (holes) in the diamond, making the diamond surface conductive. We report here on X-ray-photoelectron-spectroscopy (XPS) surface characterization of single crystal diamonds and on infrared absorption of diamond powder. After activation, XPS showed the presence of N atoms on the diamond surface, but infrared absorption found no evidence of NO2 −, but instead NO3 − is present on the diamond surface. Two wet chemistry techniques determined the concentration of NO3 − per milligram of diamond powder. With the powder's surface area measured by the BET technique, the surface NO3 − concentration was measured to be between 6.2 × 1013 and 8.2 × 1013 cm−2. This is in the same range as the carrier densities, 3 × 1013 to 9 × 1013 cm−2, determined by Hall mobility and surface conductivity measurements of single crystal diamonds. Using similar techniques, the concentration of NO2 − was determined to be <1012 cm−2. Both the surface conductance and the surface H atoms are stable in dry nitrogen, with or without NO2-activation, but the surface conductance, the concentrations of H atoms both with and without activation and NO3 − decrease when exposed to laboratory air over a period of hours to days. Infrared absorption measurements showed the reduction of surface NO3 − and H atoms during laboratory air exposure, but gave no indication of what reactions are responsible for their loss in laboratory air.",
keywords = "Diamond, Hydrogen-termination, Molecular adsorption, Nitrogen dioxide",
author = "Geis, {M. W.} and Fedynyshyn, {T. H.} and Plaut, {M. E.} and Wade, {T. C.} and Wuorio, {C. H.} and Vitale, {S. A.} and Varghese, {J. O.} and Grotjohn, {T. A.} and Robert Nemanich and Hollis, {M. A.}",
year = "2018",
month = "4",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1016/j.diamond.2018.03.002",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "84",
pages = "86--94",
journal = "Diamond and Related Materials",
issn = "0925-9635",
publisher = "Elsevier BV",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Chemical and semiconducting properties of NO2-activated H-terminated diamond

AU - Geis, M. W.

AU - Fedynyshyn, T. H.

AU - Plaut, M. E.

AU - Wade, T. C.

AU - Wuorio, C. H.

AU - Vitale, S. A.

AU - Varghese, J. O.

AU - Grotjohn, T. A.

AU - Nemanich, Robert

AU - Hollis, M. A.

PY - 2018/4/1

Y1 - 2018/4/1

N2 - The H-terminated surface of diamond when activated with NO2 produces a surface conduction layer that has been used to make field effect transistors (FETs). Previous reports have suggested that during NO2 exposure (NO2-activation), NO2 − forms on the diamond surface and generates positive carriers (holes) in the diamond, making the diamond surface conductive. We report here on X-ray-photoelectron-spectroscopy (XPS) surface characterization of single crystal diamonds and on infrared absorption of diamond powder. After activation, XPS showed the presence of N atoms on the diamond surface, but infrared absorption found no evidence of NO2 −, but instead NO3 − is present on the diamond surface. Two wet chemistry techniques determined the concentration of NO3 − per milligram of diamond powder. With the powder's surface area measured by the BET technique, the surface NO3 − concentration was measured to be between 6.2 × 1013 and 8.2 × 1013 cm−2. This is in the same range as the carrier densities, 3 × 1013 to 9 × 1013 cm−2, determined by Hall mobility and surface conductivity measurements of single crystal diamonds. Using similar techniques, the concentration of NO2 − was determined to be <1012 cm−2. Both the surface conductance and the surface H atoms are stable in dry nitrogen, with or without NO2-activation, but the surface conductance, the concentrations of H atoms both with and without activation and NO3 − decrease when exposed to laboratory air over a period of hours to days. Infrared absorption measurements showed the reduction of surface NO3 − and H atoms during laboratory air exposure, but gave no indication of what reactions are responsible for their loss in laboratory air.

AB - The H-terminated surface of diamond when activated with NO2 produces a surface conduction layer that has been used to make field effect transistors (FETs). Previous reports have suggested that during NO2 exposure (NO2-activation), NO2 − forms on the diamond surface and generates positive carriers (holes) in the diamond, making the diamond surface conductive. We report here on X-ray-photoelectron-spectroscopy (XPS) surface characterization of single crystal diamonds and on infrared absorption of diamond powder. After activation, XPS showed the presence of N atoms on the diamond surface, but infrared absorption found no evidence of NO2 −, but instead NO3 − is present on the diamond surface. Two wet chemistry techniques determined the concentration of NO3 − per milligram of diamond powder. With the powder's surface area measured by the BET technique, the surface NO3 − concentration was measured to be between 6.2 × 1013 and 8.2 × 1013 cm−2. This is in the same range as the carrier densities, 3 × 1013 to 9 × 1013 cm−2, determined by Hall mobility and surface conductivity measurements of single crystal diamonds. Using similar techniques, the concentration of NO2 − was determined to be <1012 cm−2. Both the surface conductance and the surface H atoms are stable in dry nitrogen, with or without NO2-activation, but the surface conductance, the concentrations of H atoms both with and without activation and NO3 − decrease when exposed to laboratory air over a period of hours to days. Infrared absorption measurements showed the reduction of surface NO3 − and H atoms during laboratory air exposure, but gave no indication of what reactions are responsible for their loss in laboratory air.

KW - Diamond

KW - Hydrogen-termination

KW - Molecular adsorption

KW - Nitrogen dioxide

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85043983270&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=85043983270&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1016/j.diamond.2018.03.002

DO - 10.1016/j.diamond.2018.03.002

M3 - Article

VL - 84

SP - 86

EP - 94

JO - Diamond and Related Materials

JF - Diamond and Related Materials

SN - 0925-9635

ER -