The CXC subfamily of chemokines plays an important role in diverse processes, including inflammation, wound healing, growth regulation, angiogenesis, and tumorigenesis. The ELR-CXC chemokine, CXCL1 or MGSA/GROα, is traditionally considered to attract neutrophils to sites of inflammation. The non-ELR-CXC chemokine, CXCL10 or IP-10, is chemotactic for monocytes, B cells, and activated T lymphocytes. In addition to its role in leukocyte migration, CXCL10 inhibits the angiogenic functions of the ELR-CXC chemokines as well as bFGF and VEGF. Heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) are required for the interaction of bFGF and vEGF ligands and their receptors. However, the role of HSPGs in regulating the ELR-chemokines signaling and biological functions is poorly understood. We show here that the CXCL1 maximal binding to CXCR2 expressed on HEK293 and CHO-K1 cells is dependent on the presence of cell surface HSPGs. The cell surface HSPGs on cells are required for CXCL1-induced PAK1 activation. Moreover, CXCL10 can inhibit CXCL1-induced PAK1 and ERK activation as well as the CXCL1-induced chemotaxis through decreasing CXCL1 binding to cell surface heparan sulfate. These data indicate that HSPGs are involved in modulating CXCL1-induced PAK1 activation and chemotaxis through regulating CXCL1 binding activity to CXCR2 receptor. CXCL10 inhibits CXCL1-induced PAK1 activation and chemotaxis by interfering with appropriate binding of CXCL1 to CXCR2 receptor.
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