Cardiovascular (CV) disease is the leading cause of mortality and morbidity in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, improving glycaemic control alone has not decreased CV events. Therapies that improve glycaemic control, CV disease risk factors and CV function are more likely to be successful. Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors prevent breakdown of incretin hormones glucagon-like peptide-1(GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide and improve glycaemic control in patients with T2DM. DPP-4 acts on other substrates, many associated with cardioprotection. Thus, inhibition of DPP-4 may lead to elevations in these potentially beneficial substrates. Data from animal studies and small observational studies in humans suggest that DPP-4 inhibitors may potentially reduce CV risk. However, recently completed CV outcome trials in patients with T2DM and CV disease or at high risk of adverse CV events have shown that the DPP-4 inhibitors saxagliptin and alogliptin neither increased nor decreased major adverse CV events.
- dipeptidyl peptidase-4
- glucagon-like peptide-1
- type 2 diabetes
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Internal Medicine
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine