Cardiorespiratory fitness, body composition, and all-cause and cardiovascular disease mortality in men

Chong Lee, Steven N. Blair, Andrew S. Jackson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

711 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: Cardiorespiratory fitness and body fatness are both related to health, but their interrelation to all-cause and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality is unknown. Objective: We examined the health benefits of leanness and the hazards of obesity while simultaneously considering cardiorespiratory fitness. Design: This was an observational cohort study. We followed 21925 men, aged 30-83 y, who had a body-composition assessment and a maximal treadmill exercise test. There were 428 deaths (144 from CVD, 143 from cancer, and 141 from other causes) in an average of 8 y of follow-up (176742 man-years). Results: After adjustment for age, examination year, cigarette smoking, alcohol intake, and parental history of ischemic heart disease, unfit (low cardiorespiratory fitness as determined by maximal exercise testing), lean men had double the risk of all-cause mortality of fit, lean men (relative risk: 2.07; 95% CI: 1.16, 3.69; P = 0.01). Unfit, lean men also had a higher risk of all-cause and CVD mortality than did men who were fit and obese. We observed similar results for fat and fat-free mass in relation to mortality. Unfit men had a higher risk of all-cause and CVD mortality than did fit men in all fat and fat-free mass categories. Similarly, unfit men with low waist girths (< 87 cm) had greater risk of all- cause mortality than did fit men with high waist girths (≥99 cm). Conclusions: The health benefits of leanness are limited to fit men, and being fit may reduce the hazards of obesity.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)373-380
Number of pages8
JournalAmerican Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Volume69
Issue number3
StatePublished - Mar 1999
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Body Composition
cardiovascular diseases
body composition
Cardiovascular Diseases
Mortality
Fats
exercise test
waist
girth
Thinness
lipids
Insurance Benefits
Exercise Test
obesity
Cardiorespiratory Fitness
Obesity
smoking (habit)
exercise equipment
relative risk
myocardial ischemia

Keywords

  • All-cause mortality
  • Body composition,cardiorespiratory fitness
  • Cardiovascular disease mortality
  • Epidemiology
  • Fat mass
  • Fat-free mass
  • Men
  • Mortality
  • Waist girth

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Food Science

Cite this

Cardiorespiratory fitness, body composition, and all-cause and cardiovascular disease mortality in men. / Lee, Chong; Blair, Steven N.; Jackson, Andrew S.

In: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 69, No. 3, 03.1999, p. 373-380.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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