Buoyancy, gender, and swimming performance

Scott P. McLean, Richard N. Hinrichs

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    10 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    This study investigated the relationship of gender and buoyancy to sprint swimming performance. The center of buoyancy (CB) and center of mass (CM) were measured using reaction board principles. Performance was evaluated as the time needed to complete the middle 13.7 m of a 22.9-m sprint for kicking and swimming trials. Nineteen female swimmers (mean ± SD, 21.9 ± 3.2 years) had significantly more body fat (24.1 ± 4.5%) than 13 male swimmers (21.7 ± 4.2 years, 14.8 ± 5.0%). Males swam and kicked significantly faster (p <.01) than females. Percent body fat, upper body strength, the distance between the CB and CM (d), and the buoyant force measured in 3 body positions all met the criteria for entrance into a regression equation. When gender was not controlled in the analysis, these variables accounted for 70% of the variance in swim time (p <.008). When gender was controlled in the analysis, these variables accounted for 45% of the variance in swim time (p = .06). Percent body fat accounted for the largest amount variance in both regression analyses (39%, p <.001; 18%, p = 0.02, respectively). Upper body strength accounted for 14% of the variance in swim time (p = .006) when gender was not controlled but only 4% when gender was controlled (p = .27). The distance d as measured in a body position with both arms raised above the head was the buoyancy factor that accounted for the greatest amount of variance in swim time (6% when gender was not controlled, p = .06, 10%; when gender was controlled, p = .07). Percent body fat, d, and the buoyant force accounted for no significant amount of variance in kick time. These data suggested that a swimmer's buoyancy characteristics did have a small but important influence on sprint swimming performance.

    Original languageEnglish (US)
    Pages (from-to)248-263
    Number of pages16
    JournalJournal of Applied Biomechanics
    Volume16
    Issue number3
    StatePublished - Aug 2000

    Fingerprint

    Adipose Tissue
    Arm
    Head
    Regression Analysis

    Keywords

    • Center of buoyancy
    • Performance
    • Swimming

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine
    • Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation

    Cite this

    McLean, S. P., & Hinrichs, R. N. (2000). Buoyancy, gender, and swimming performance. Journal of Applied Biomechanics, 16(3), 248-263.

    Buoyancy, gender, and swimming performance. / McLean, Scott P.; Hinrichs, Richard N.

    In: Journal of Applied Biomechanics, Vol. 16, No. 3, 08.2000, p. 248-263.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    McLean, SP & Hinrichs, RN 2000, 'Buoyancy, gender, and swimming performance', Journal of Applied Biomechanics, vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 248-263.
    McLean SP, Hinrichs RN. Buoyancy, gender, and swimming performance. Journal of Applied Biomechanics. 2000 Aug;16(3):248-263.
    McLean, Scott P. ; Hinrichs, Richard N. / Buoyancy, gender, and swimming performance. In: Journal of Applied Biomechanics. 2000 ; Vol. 16, No. 3. pp. 248-263.
    @article{22ea849225004450bf7bdce633ff8bb6,
    title = "Buoyancy, gender, and swimming performance",
    abstract = "This study investigated the relationship of gender and buoyancy to sprint swimming performance. The center of buoyancy (CB) and center of mass (CM) were measured using reaction board principles. Performance was evaluated as the time needed to complete the middle 13.7 m of a 22.9-m sprint for kicking and swimming trials. Nineteen female swimmers (mean ± SD, 21.9 ± 3.2 years) had significantly more body fat (24.1 ± 4.5{\%}) than 13 male swimmers (21.7 ± 4.2 years, 14.8 ± 5.0{\%}). Males swam and kicked significantly faster (p <.01) than females. Percent body fat, upper body strength, the distance between the CB and CM (d), and the buoyant force measured in 3 body positions all met the criteria for entrance into a regression equation. When gender was not controlled in the analysis, these variables accounted for 70{\%} of the variance in swim time (p <.008). When gender was controlled in the analysis, these variables accounted for 45{\%} of the variance in swim time (p = .06). Percent body fat accounted for the largest amount variance in both regression analyses (39{\%}, p <.001; 18{\%}, p = 0.02, respectively). Upper body strength accounted for 14{\%} of the variance in swim time (p = .006) when gender was not controlled but only 4{\%} when gender was controlled (p = .27). The distance d as measured in a body position with both arms raised above the head was the buoyancy factor that accounted for the greatest amount of variance in swim time (6{\%} when gender was not controlled, p = .06, 10{\%}; when gender was controlled, p = .07). Percent body fat, d, and the buoyant force accounted for no significant amount of variance in kick time. These data suggested that a swimmer's buoyancy characteristics did have a small but important influence on sprint swimming performance.",
    keywords = "Center of buoyancy, Performance, Swimming",
    author = "McLean, {Scott P.} and Hinrichs, {Richard N.}",
    year = "2000",
    month = "8",
    language = "English (US)",
    volume = "16",
    pages = "248--263",
    journal = "Journal of Applied Biomechanics",
    issn = "1065-8483",
    publisher = "Human Kinetics Publishers Inc.",
    number = "3",

    }

    TY - JOUR

    T1 - Buoyancy, gender, and swimming performance

    AU - McLean, Scott P.

    AU - Hinrichs, Richard N.

    PY - 2000/8

    Y1 - 2000/8

    N2 - This study investigated the relationship of gender and buoyancy to sprint swimming performance. The center of buoyancy (CB) and center of mass (CM) were measured using reaction board principles. Performance was evaluated as the time needed to complete the middle 13.7 m of a 22.9-m sprint for kicking and swimming trials. Nineteen female swimmers (mean ± SD, 21.9 ± 3.2 years) had significantly more body fat (24.1 ± 4.5%) than 13 male swimmers (21.7 ± 4.2 years, 14.8 ± 5.0%). Males swam and kicked significantly faster (p <.01) than females. Percent body fat, upper body strength, the distance between the CB and CM (d), and the buoyant force measured in 3 body positions all met the criteria for entrance into a regression equation. When gender was not controlled in the analysis, these variables accounted for 70% of the variance in swim time (p <.008). When gender was controlled in the analysis, these variables accounted for 45% of the variance in swim time (p = .06). Percent body fat accounted for the largest amount variance in both regression analyses (39%, p <.001; 18%, p = 0.02, respectively). Upper body strength accounted for 14% of the variance in swim time (p = .006) when gender was not controlled but only 4% when gender was controlled (p = .27). The distance d as measured in a body position with both arms raised above the head was the buoyancy factor that accounted for the greatest amount of variance in swim time (6% when gender was not controlled, p = .06, 10%; when gender was controlled, p = .07). Percent body fat, d, and the buoyant force accounted for no significant amount of variance in kick time. These data suggested that a swimmer's buoyancy characteristics did have a small but important influence on sprint swimming performance.

    AB - This study investigated the relationship of gender and buoyancy to sprint swimming performance. The center of buoyancy (CB) and center of mass (CM) were measured using reaction board principles. Performance was evaluated as the time needed to complete the middle 13.7 m of a 22.9-m sprint for kicking and swimming trials. Nineteen female swimmers (mean ± SD, 21.9 ± 3.2 years) had significantly more body fat (24.1 ± 4.5%) than 13 male swimmers (21.7 ± 4.2 years, 14.8 ± 5.0%). Males swam and kicked significantly faster (p <.01) than females. Percent body fat, upper body strength, the distance between the CB and CM (d), and the buoyant force measured in 3 body positions all met the criteria for entrance into a regression equation. When gender was not controlled in the analysis, these variables accounted for 70% of the variance in swim time (p <.008). When gender was controlled in the analysis, these variables accounted for 45% of the variance in swim time (p = .06). Percent body fat accounted for the largest amount variance in both regression analyses (39%, p <.001; 18%, p = 0.02, respectively). Upper body strength accounted for 14% of the variance in swim time (p = .006) when gender was not controlled but only 4% when gender was controlled (p = .27). The distance d as measured in a body position with both arms raised above the head was the buoyancy factor that accounted for the greatest amount of variance in swim time (6% when gender was not controlled, p = .06, 10%; when gender was controlled, p = .07). Percent body fat, d, and the buoyant force accounted for no significant amount of variance in kick time. These data suggested that a swimmer's buoyancy characteristics did have a small but important influence on sprint swimming performance.

    KW - Center of buoyancy

    KW - Performance

    KW - Swimming

    UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0034254043&partnerID=8YFLogxK

    UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0034254043&partnerID=8YFLogxK

    M3 - Article

    AN - SCOPUS:0034254043

    VL - 16

    SP - 248

    EP - 263

    JO - Journal of Applied Biomechanics

    JF - Journal of Applied Biomechanics

    SN - 1065-8483

    IS - 3

    ER -