### Abstract

We calculate the optimal upper and lower bounds, subject to the assumption of streamwise invariance, on the long-time-averaged mechanical energy dissipation rate ε within the flow of an incompressible viscous fluid of constant kinematic viscosity ν and depth h driven by a constant surface stress τ = ρu_{*}
^{2}, where u_{*} is the friction velocity. We show that ε ≤ ε_{max} = τ^{2}/(ρ^{2}ν), i.e. the dissipation is bounded above by the dissipation associated with the laminar solution u = τ(z+h)/(ρν)î, where î is the unit vector in the streamwise x-direction. By using the variational 'background method' (due to Constantin, Doering and Hopf) and numerical continuation, we also generate a rigorous lower bound on the dissipation for arbitra Grashof numbers G, where G = τh^{2}/(ρν_{2}). Under the assumption of streamwise invariance as G → ∞, for flows where horizontal mean momentum balance and total power balance are imposed as constraints, we show numerically that the best possible lower bound for the dissipation is ε ≥ ε_{min} = 7.531u_{*}
^{3}/h, a bound that is independent of the flow viscosity. This scaling (though not the best possible numerical coefficient) can also be obtained directly by applying the same imposed constraints and restricting attention to a particular, analytically tractable, class of mean flows.

Original language | English (US) |
---|---|

Pages (from-to) | 333-352 |

Number of pages | 20 |

Journal | Journal of Fluid Mechanics |

Issue number | 510 |

DOIs | |

State | Published - Jul 10 2004 |

Externally published | Yes |

### Fingerprint

### ASJC Scopus subject areas

- Mechanics of Materials
- Computational Mechanics
- Physics and Astronomy(all)
- Condensed Matter Physics

### Cite this

*Journal of Fluid Mechanics*, (510), 333-352. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0022112004009589

**Bounds on dissipation in stress-driven flow.** / Tang, Wenbo; Caulfield, C. P.; Young, W. R.

Research output: Contribution to journal › Article

*Journal of Fluid Mechanics*, no. 510, pp. 333-352. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0022112004009589

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Bounds on dissipation in stress-driven flow

AU - Tang, Wenbo

AU - Caulfield, C. P.

AU - Young, W. R.

PY - 2004/7/10

Y1 - 2004/7/10

N2 - We calculate the optimal upper and lower bounds, subject to the assumption of streamwise invariance, on the long-time-averaged mechanical energy dissipation rate ε within the flow of an incompressible viscous fluid of constant kinematic viscosity ν and depth h driven by a constant surface stress τ = ρu* 2, where u* is the friction velocity. We show that ε ≤ εmax = τ2/(ρ2ν), i.e. the dissipation is bounded above by the dissipation associated with the laminar solution u = τ(z+h)/(ρν)î, where î is the unit vector in the streamwise x-direction. By using the variational 'background method' (due to Constantin, Doering and Hopf) and numerical continuation, we also generate a rigorous lower bound on the dissipation for arbitra Grashof numbers G, where G = τh2/(ρν2). Under the assumption of streamwise invariance as G → ∞, for flows where horizontal mean momentum balance and total power balance are imposed as constraints, we show numerically that the best possible lower bound for the dissipation is ε ≥ εmin = 7.531u* 3/h, a bound that is independent of the flow viscosity. This scaling (though not the best possible numerical coefficient) can also be obtained directly by applying the same imposed constraints and restricting attention to a particular, analytically tractable, class of mean flows.

AB - We calculate the optimal upper and lower bounds, subject to the assumption of streamwise invariance, on the long-time-averaged mechanical energy dissipation rate ε within the flow of an incompressible viscous fluid of constant kinematic viscosity ν and depth h driven by a constant surface stress τ = ρu* 2, where u* is the friction velocity. We show that ε ≤ εmax = τ2/(ρ2ν), i.e. the dissipation is bounded above by the dissipation associated with the laminar solution u = τ(z+h)/(ρν)î, where î is the unit vector in the streamwise x-direction. By using the variational 'background method' (due to Constantin, Doering and Hopf) and numerical continuation, we also generate a rigorous lower bound on the dissipation for arbitra Grashof numbers G, where G = τh2/(ρν2). Under the assumption of streamwise invariance as G → ∞, for flows where horizontal mean momentum balance and total power balance are imposed as constraints, we show numerically that the best possible lower bound for the dissipation is ε ≥ εmin = 7.531u* 3/h, a bound that is independent of the flow viscosity. This scaling (though not the best possible numerical coefficient) can also be obtained directly by applying the same imposed constraints and restricting attention to a particular, analytically tractable, class of mean flows.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=3242711216&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=3242711216&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1017/S0022112004009589

DO - 10.1017/S0022112004009589

M3 - Article

SP - 333

EP - 352

JO - Journal of Fluid Mechanics

JF - Journal of Fluid Mechanics

SN - 0022-1120

IS - 510

ER -