Bolocam survey for 1.1 mm dust continuum emission in the c2d legacy clouds. I. Perseus

Melissa L. Enoch, Kaisa E. Young, Jason Glenn, Neal J. Evans, Sunil Golwala, Anneila I. Sargent, Paul Harvey, James Alexey, Alexey Goldin, Douglas Haig, Tracy L. Huard, Andrew Lange, Glenn Laurent, Philip Maloney, Philip Mauskopf, Philippe Rossinot, Jack Savers

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

242 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

We have completed a 1.1 mm continuum survey of 7.5 deg2 of the Perseus Molecular Cloud using Bolocam at the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory. This represents the largest millimeter or submillimeter continuum map of Perseus to date. Our map covers more than 30,000 31″ (FWHM) resolution elements to a 1 σ rms of 15 mJy beam-1. We detect a total of 122 cores above a 5 σ point-source mass detection limit of 0.18 M, assuming a dust temperature of TD = 10 K, 60 of which are new millimeter or submillimeter detections. The 1.1 mm mass function is consistent with a broken power law of slope α1 = 1.3 (0.5 M < M < 2.5 M) and α2 = 2.6 (M > 2.5 M), similar to the local initial mass function slope (α1 = 1.6, M < 1 M; α2 = 2.7, M > 1 M). No more than 5% of the total cloud mass is contained in discrete 1.1 mm cores, which account for a total mass of 285 M. We suggest an extinction threshold for millimeter cores of AV ∼ 5 mag, based on our calculation of the probability of finding a 1.1 mm core as a function of AV. Much of the cloud is devoid of compact millimeter emission; despite the significantly greater area covered compared to previous surveys, only 5-10 of the newly identified sources lie outside previously observed areas. The two-point correlation function confirms that dense cores in the cloud are highly structured, with significant clustering on scales as large as 2 × 10 5 AU. Our 1.1 mm emission survey reveals considerably denser, more compact material than maps in other column density tracers such as 13CO and AV, although the general morphologies are roughly consistent. These 1.1 mm results, especially when combined with recently acquired c2d Spitzer Legacy data, will provide a census of dense cores and protostars in Perseus and improve our understanding of the earliest stages of star formation in molecular clouds.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)293-313
Number of pages21
JournalAstrophysical Journal
Volume638
Issue number1 I
DOIs
StatePublished - Feb 10 2006
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

dust
continuums
molecular clouds
slopes
census
protostars
point source
power law
observatory
point sources
extinction
tracer
tracers
star formation
observatories
thresholds
temperature
detection

Keywords

  • Ism: clouds
  • Ism: individual (Perseus)
  • Stars: formation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Space and Planetary Science

Cite this

Enoch, M. L., Young, K. E., Glenn, J., Evans, N. J., Golwala, S., Sargent, A. I., ... Savers, J. (2006). Bolocam survey for 1.1 mm dust continuum emission in the c2d legacy clouds. I. Perseus. Astrophysical Journal, 638(1 I), 293-313. https://doi.org/10.1086/498678

Bolocam survey for 1.1 mm dust continuum emission in the c2d legacy clouds. I. Perseus. / Enoch, Melissa L.; Young, Kaisa E.; Glenn, Jason; Evans, Neal J.; Golwala, Sunil; Sargent, Anneila I.; Harvey, Paul; Alexey, James; Goldin, Alexey; Haig, Douglas; Huard, Tracy L.; Lange, Andrew; Laurent, Glenn; Maloney, Philip; Mauskopf, Philip; Rossinot, Philippe; Savers, Jack.

In: Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 638, No. 1 I, 10.02.2006, p. 293-313.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Enoch, ML, Young, KE, Glenn, J, Evans, NJ, Golwala, S, Sargent, AI, Harvey, P, Alexey, J, Goldin, A, Haig, D, Huard, TL, Lange, A, Laurent, G, Maloney, P, Mauskopf, P, Rossinot, P & Savers, J 2006, 'Bolocam survey for 1.1 mm dust continuum emission in the c2d legacy clouds. I. Perseus', Astrophysical Journal, vol. 638, no. 1 I, pp. 293-313. https://doi.org/10.1086/498678
Enoch ML, Young KE, Glenn J, Evans NJ, Golwala S, Sargent AI et al. Bolocam survey for 1.1 mm dust continuum emission in the c2d legacy clouds. I. Perseus. Astrophysical Journal. 2006 Feb 10;638(1 I):293-313. https://doi.org/10.1086/498678
Enoch, Melissa L. ; Young, Kaisa E. ; Glenn, Jason ; Evans, Neal J. ; Golwala, Sunil ; Sargent, Anneila I. ; Harvey, Paul ; Alexey, James ; Goldin, Alexey ; Haig, Douglas ; Huard, Tracy L. ; Lange, Andrew ; Laurent, Glenn ; Maloney, Philip ; Mauskopf, Philip ; Rossinot, Philippe ; Savers, Jack. / Bolocam survey for 1.1 mm dust continuum emission in the c2d legacy clouds. I. Perseus. In: Astrophysical Journal. 2006 ; Vol. 638, No. 1 I. pp. 293-313.
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AU - Harvey, Paul

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AU - Haig, Douglas

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AU - Lange, Andrew

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N2 - We have completed a 1.1 mm continuum survey of 7.5 deg2 of the Perseus Molecular Cloud using Bolocam at the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory. This represents the largest millimeter or submillimeter continuum map of Perseus to date. Our map covers more than 30,000 31″ (FWHM) resolution elements to a 1 σ rms of 15 mJy beam-1. We detect a total of 122 cores above a 5 σ point-source mass detection limit of 0.18 M⊙, assuming a dust temperature of TD = 10 K, 60 of which are new millimeter or submillimeter detections. The 1.1 mm mass function is consistent with a broken power law of slope α1 = 1.3 (0.5 M ⊙ < M < 2.5 M⊙) and α2 = 2.6 (M > 2.5 M⊙), similar to the local initial mass function slope (α1 = 1.6, M < 1 M⊙; α2 = 2.7, M > 1 M⊙). No more than 5% of the total cloud mass is contained in discrete 1.1 mm cores, which account for a total mass of 285 M⊙. We suggest an extinction threshold for millimeter cores of AV ∼ 5 mag, based on our calculation of the probability of finding a 1.1 mm core as a function of AV. Much of the cloud is devoid of compact millimeter emission; despite the significantly greater area covered compared to previous surveys, only 5-10 of the newly identified sources lie outside previously observed areas. The two-point correlation function confirms that dense cores in the cloud are highly structured, with significant clustering on scales as large as 2 × 10 5 AU. Our 1.1 mm emission survey reveals considerably denser, more compact material than maps in other column density tracers such as 13CO and AV, although the general morphologies are roughly consistent. These 1.1 mm results, especially when combined with recently acquired c2d Spitzer Legacy data, will provide a census of dense cores and protostars in Perseus and improve our understanding of the earliest stages of star formation in molecular clouds.

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