Blood and body fluid exposures during clinical training: Relation to knowledge of universal precautions

Daniel J. Diekema, Mark A. Albanese, Sandra S. Schuldt, Bradley N. Doebbeling

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

17 Scopus citations


To investigate the relation between knowledge of universal precautions and rates of exposure to blood and body fluid during clinical training, a cohort of 155 students was surveyed following training in universal precautions and 18 months later. A total of 127 students (82%) participated; 58 (46%) experienced at least one exposure during the first clinical training year. Knowledge of universal precautions was inversely associated with the frequency of mucous membrane exposures (p = .001); an apparent 'dose- response' effect was evident (one-way analysis of variance: F = 5.2, p = .007). Students are frequently exposed to blood and body fluid during clinical training. Higher levels of retained knowledge about universal precautions are associated with a decreased risk of mucous membrane exposure.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)109-111
Number of pages3
JournalJournal of General Internal Medicine
Issue number2
StatePublished - Jan 1 1996



  • education
  • medical students
  • needlestick injuries
  • universal precautions

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Internal Medicine

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