Biocompatible, high precision, wideband, improved howland current source with lead-lag compensation

Aaron S. Tucker, Robert M. Fox, Rosalind Sadleir

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

55 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The Howland current pump is a popular bioelectrical circuit, useful for delivering precise electrical currents. In applications requiring high precision delivery of alternating current to biological loads, the output impedance of the Howland is a critical figure of merit that limits the precision of the delivered current when the load changes. We explain the minimum operational amplifier requirements to meet a target precision over a wide bandwidth. We also discuss effective compensation strategies for achieving stability without sacrificing high frequency output impedance. A current source suitable for Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT) was simulated using a SPICE model, and built to verify stable operation. This current source design had stable output impedance of 3.3 M\Omega up to 200 kHz, which provides 80 dB precision for our EIT application. We conclude by noting the difficulty in measuring the output impedance, and advise verifying the plausibility of measurements against theoretical limitations.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number6221965
Pages (from-to)63-70
Number of pages8
JournalIEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
Volume7
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - 2013
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Acoustic impedance
Tomography
Lead
Operational amplifiers
SPICE
Pumps
Bandwidth
Networks (circuits)
Compensation and Redress

Keywords

  • Bioimpedance
  • electrical impedance tomography (EIT)
  • electrical stimulation
  • Howland current source

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering
  • Biomedical Engineering

Cite this

Biocompatible, high precision, wideband, improved howland current source with lead-lag compensation. / Tucker, Aaron S.; Fox, Robert M.; Sadleir, Rosalind.

In: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems, Vol. 7, No. 1, 6221965, 2013, p. 63-70.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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