The regulation of adenylate cyclase in murine melanoma tumor cell clones with different metastatic capacities has been studied in intact cells and isolated membrane preparations. Analysis of the responses of intact cells from a number of B16 melanoma clones revealed that treatment with melanocyte‐stimulating hormone (MSH) or the diterpene, forskolin, produced significantly greater accumulation of intracellular cyclic adenosine 3′,5′ monophosphate (cAMP) in strongly metastatic clones than in weakly metastatic tumor cell clones. In contrast, in isolated membranes from the same panel of clones, the extent of activation by forskolin but not by MSH correlated with metastatic capacity. Sodium fluoride and 5′‐guanyl‐ß‐γ‐imidodiphosphate [Gpp(NH)p] also stimulated adenylate cyclase in isolated membranes but the extent of activation did not correlate with the metastatic behavior of the donor cells. A combination of forskolin and Gpp(NH)p proved to be a sensitive prospective indicator for identifying differences in the metastatic capabilities of individual B16 melanoma clones. Adenylate cyclase in membrane preparations from strongly metastatic B16 clones displayed synergistic activation but stimulation of the enzyme from weakly metastatic clones was less than additive. To test the generality of these findings, similar investigations were performed on B16‐BL6 melanoma cells, a highly invasive subline of the B16 melanoma, and the K1735, an ultraviolet‐light‐induced murine melanoma arising in a different mouse strain (C3H). Consistent with their high metastatic potential, clones derived from the B16‐BL6 melanoma displayed elevated levels of hormon‐ally‐stimulated adenylate cyclase, thereby confirming, for this tumor system, a close association between hormonal responsiveness and metastatic capacity. In contrast, K1735 melanoma cell clones exhibited significant interclonal variation in adenylate cyclase activity and metastatic performance, but no consistent relationship between the two traits was detected. Differences in the regulation and/or the intrinsic catalytic capacity of adenylate cyclase may account, at least in part, for the variation in hormonal responsiveness observed among B16 clones with distinct metastatic properties and suggest that cAMP‐dependent molecular processes may be required for the expression of B16 melanoma experimental metastatic potential. The failure to detect a similar association between cAMP metabolism and metastatic performance in the K1735 melanoma cells indicates that this molecular process is not an invariant feature of metastatic tumor cells and suggests that metastatic competence in tumor cells arising from a common cell lineage involves diverse phenotypic aberrations.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cancer Research