Phasor measurement units (PMUs) play an important role in the wide-area monitoring and protection of modern power systems. Historically, their deployment was limited by the prohibitive cost of the device itself. Therefore, the objective of the conventional optimal PMU placement problem was to find minimum number of devices, which when carefully placed throughout the network, maximised observability subject to different constraints. Due to improvements in relay technology, digital relays can now serve as both relays and PMUs. Under such circumstances, the substation installations consume the largest portion of the deployment cost, and not the devices themselves. Thus, for minimising cost of synchrophasor deployment, number of substation installations must be minimised. This study uses binary particle swarm optimisation to minimise number of substations in which installations must be performed for making all voltage levels observable, while being subject to various practical constraints. Standard IEEE systems have been used to explain the technique. Finally, a large-scale network of Dominion Virginia Power is used as the test bed for implementation.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Control and Systems Engineering
- Energy Engineering and Power Technology
- Electrical and Electronic Engineering