Bi- and trilayer graphene solutions

Chih Jen Shih, Aravind Vijayaraghavan, Rajasekar Krishnan, Richa Sharma, Jae Hee Han, Moon Ho Ham, Zhong Jin, Shangchao Lin, Geraldine L.C. Paulus, Nigel Forest Reuel, Qing Hua Wang, Daniel Blankschtein, Michael S. Strano

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

316 Scopus citations


Bilayer and trilayer graphene with controlled stacking is emerging as one of the most promising candidates for post-silicon nanoelectronics. However, it is not yet possible to produce large quantities of bilayer or trilayer graphene with controlled stacking, as is required for many applications. Here, we demonstrate a solution-phase technique for the production of large-area, bilayer or trilayer graphene from graphite, with controlled stacking. The ionic compounds iodine chloride (ICl) or iodine bromide (IBr) intercalate the graphite starting material at every second or third layer, creating second- or third-stage controlled graphite intercolation compounds, respectively. The resulting solution dispersions are specifically enriched with bilayer or trilayer graphene, respectively. Because the process requires only mild sonication, it produces graphene flakes with areas as large as 50μm 2. Moreover, the electronic properties of the flakes are superior to those achieved with other solution-based methods; for example, unannealed samples have resistivities as low as ∼1 kω and hole mobilities as high as ∼400 cm2 V-1 s-1. The solution-based process is expected to allow high-throughput production, functionalization, and the transfer of samples to arbitrary substrates.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)439-445
Number of pages7
JournalNature nanotechnology
Issue number7
StatePublished - Jul 2011
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Bioengineering
  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
  • Biomedical Engineering
  • Materials Science(all)
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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