This study examined the influence of interactions between first graders' fall language-literacy skills (vocabulary and decoding) and classroom instructional practices on their spring decoding scores. Instructional activities were coded as teacher managed or child managed and as explicit or implicit, as well as for change in amount of time spent in the activity over the school year. Findings revealed that specific patterns of instructional activities differentially predicted children's decoding skill growth. Children with low initial decoding scores achieved greater decoding growth in classrooms with more time spent in teacher-managed explicit decoding (TME) instruction. In contrast, for children with initially high decoding scores, amount of TME had no effect. Children with low initial vocabulary scores achieved greater decoding score growth in classrooms with less child-managed implicit (CMI) instruction but with increasing amounts of CMI instruction as the school year progressed. However, children with high initial vocabulary scores achieved greater decoding growth in classrooms with more time spent in CMI activities and in consistent amounts throughout the school year. Children's initial decoding and vocabulary scores also directly and positively affected their decoding score growth. These main effects and interactions were independent and additive, thus children's first-grade decoding skill growth was affected by initial vocabulary and decoding skill as well as type of instruction received-but the effect of type of instruction (TME or CMI amount and change) depended on children's initial vocabulary and decoding scores. Implications for research and educational practices are discussed.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Psychology (miscellaneous)