Beyond East vs. West: Social class, region, and religion as forms of culture

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43 Scopus citations


In this article we seek to further broaden the focus of the psychological study of cultural differences beyond the predominant focus on ethnicity and nationality. We highlight ways that other forms of culture, including social class, region, and religion, sometimes have psychological consequences that parallel those of ethnicity and nationality, and are sometimes more unique. For example, we review recent work that working class culture is more interdependent, holistic, empathic, and vigilant; that regional cultures vary in honor, individualism, conformity, and tightness-looseness; and that religions differ in attributions, cognition, working styles, and the bases of morality. We conclude with some recommendations for future work on culture, including the origins of cultures, the multiple forms of culture, the uniqueness and similarities of cultures, and how multiple forms of culture interact.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)5-9
Number of pages5
JournalCurrent Opinion in Psychology
StatePublished - Apr 1 2016

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Psychology(all)


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