Combined ion exchange (CIX) treatment of wastewater effluent and ion-exchange regeneration using flue gas carbon dioxide (CO2) was investigated as a way of beneficially joining the water and energy sectors. CIX treatment removed calcium, magnesium, sulfate, nitrate, phosphate, and dissolved organic carbon from wastewater effluent. Regeneration of CIX using sodium chloride, sodium bicarbonate, hydrochloric acid, and CO2 was investigated. Carbon dioxide had a lower regeneration efficiency compared with the other regeneration solutions. Alternative CO2 regeneration conditions were evaluated to gain insight on the effects of increased gas pressure, increased contact time, and increased rate of CO2 dissolution on regeneration efficiency.
- Carbon dioxide
- Cooling water
- Power plants
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Safety, Risk, Reliability and Quality
- Waste Management and Disposal
- Process Chemistry and Technology