Asymmetries in adaptive optics point spread functions

Alexander Madurowicz, Bruce Macintosh, Jeffrey Chilcote, Marshall Perrin, Lisa Poyneer, Laurent Pueyo, Jean Baptiste Ruffio, Vanessa P. Bailey, Travis Barman, Joanna Bulger, Tara Cotten, Robert J. De Rosa, Rene Doyon, Gaspard Duchêne, Thomas M. Esposito, Michael P. Fitzgerald, Katherine B. Follette, Benjamin L. Gerard, Stephen J. Goodsell, James R. GrahamAlexandra Z. Greenbaum, Pascale Hibon, Li Wei Hung, Patrick Ingraham, Paul Kalas, Quinn Konopacky, Jérôme Maire, Franck Marchis, Mark S. Marley, Christian Marois, Stanimir Metchev, Maxwell A. Millar-Blanchaer, Eric L. Nielsen, Rebecca Oppenheimer, David Palmer, Jennifer Patience, Abhijith Rajan, Julien Rameau, Fredrik T. Rantakyrö, Dmitry Savransky, Anand Sivaramakrishnan, Inseok Song, Remi Soummer, Melissa Tallis, Sandrine Thomas, Jason J. Wang, Kimberly Ward-Duong, Schuyler Wolff

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

An explanation for the origin of asymmetry along the preferential axis of the point spread function (PSF) of an AO system is developed. When phase errors from high-altitude turbulence scintillate due to Fresnel propagation, wavefront amplitude errors may be spatially offset from residual phase errors. These correlated errors appear as asymmetry in the image plane under the Fraunhofer condition. In an analytic model with an open-loop AO system, the strength of the asymmetry is calculated for a single mode of phase aberration, which generalizes to two dimensions under a Fourier decomposition of the complex illumination. Other parameters included are the spatial offset of the AO correction, which is the wind velocity in the frozen flow regime multiplied by the effective AO time delay and propagation distance or altitude of the turbulent layer. In this model, the asymmetry is strongest when the wind is slow and nearest to the coronagraphic mask when the turbulent layer is far away, such as when the telescope is pointing low toward the horizon. A great emphasis is made about the fact that the brighter asymmetric lobe of the PSF points in the opposite direction as the wind, which is consistent analytically with the clarification that the image plane electric field distribution is actually the inverse Fourier transform of the aperture plane. Validation of this understanding is made with observations taken from the Gemini Planet Imager, as well as being reproducible in end-to-end AO simulations.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number049003
JournalJournal of Astronomical Telescopes, Instruments, and Systems
Volume5
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 1 2019

Fingerprint

Adaptive optics
Optical transfer function
point spread functions
adaptive optics
asymmetry
phase error
Inverse transforms
propagation
wind velocity
Planets
Wavefronts
high altitude
Aberrations
Image sensors
Telescopes
lobes
Fourier transform
horizon
electric field
Masks

Keywords

  • Adaptive optics
  • Fresnel propagation
  • Point-spread functions
  • Scintillation
  • Turbulence

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Control and Systems Engineering
  • Instrumentation
  • Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • Mechanical Engineering
  • Space and Planetary Science

Cite this

Madurowicz, A., Macintosh, B., Chilcote, J., Perrin, M., Poyneer, L., Pueyo, L., ... Wolff, S. (2019). Asymmetries in adaptive optics point spread functions. Journal of Astronomical Telescopes, Instruments, and Systems, 5(4), [049003]. https://doi.org/10.1117/1.JATIS.5.4.049003

Asymmetries in adaptive optics point spread functions. / Madurowicz, Alexander; Macintosh, Bruce; Chilcote, Jeffrey; Perrin, Marshall; Poyneer, Lisa; Pueyo, Laurent; Ruffio, Jean Baptiste; Bailey, Vanessa P.; Barman, Travis; Bulger, Joanna; Cotten, Tara; De Rosa, Robert J.; Doyon, Rene; Duchêne, Gaspard; Esposito, Thomas M.; Fitzgerald, Michael P.; Follette, Katherine B.; Gerard, Benjamin L.; Goodsell, Stephen J.; Graham, James R.; Greenbaum, Alexandra Z.; Hibon, Pascale; Hung, Li Wei; Ingraham, Patrick; Kalas, Paul; Konopacky, Quinn; Maire, Jérôme; Marchis, Franck; Marley, Mark S.; Marois, Christian; Metchev, Stanimir; Millar-Blanchaer, Maxwell A.; Nielsen, Eric L.; Oppenheimer, Rebecca; Palmer, David; Patience, Jennifer; Rajan, Abhijith; Rameau, Julien; Rantakyrö, Fredrik T.; Savransky, Dmitry; Sivaramakrishnan, Anand; Song, Inseok; Soummer, Remi; Tallis, Melissa; Thomas, Sandrine; Wang, Jason J.; Ward-Duong, Kimberly; Wolff, Schuyler.

In: Journal of Astronomical Telescopes, Instruments, and Systems, Vol. 5, No. 4, 049003, 01.10.2019.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Madurowicz, A, Macintosh, B, Chilcote, J, Perrin, M, Poyneer, L, Pueyo, L, Ruffio, JB, Bailey, VP, Barman, T, Bulger, J, Cotten, T, De Rosa, RJ, Doyon, R, Duchêne, G, Esposito, TM, Fitzgerald, MP, Follette, KB, Gerard, BL, Goodsell, SJ, Graham, JR, Greenbaum, AZ, Hibon, P, Hung, LW, Ingraham, P, Kalas, P, Konopacky, Q, Maire, J, Marchis, F, Marley, MS, Marois, C, Metchev, S, Millar-Blanchaer, MA, Nielsen, EL, Oppenheimer, R, Palmer, D, Patience, J, Rajan, A, Rameau, J, Rantakyrö, FT, Savransky, D, Sivaramakrishnan, A, Song, I, Soummer, R, Tallis, M, Thomas, S, Wang, JJ, Ward-Duong, K & Wolff, S 2019, 'Asymmetries in adaptive optics point spread functions', Journal of Astronomical Telescopes, Instruments, and Systems, vol. 5, no. 4, 049003. https://doi.org/10.1117/1.JATIS.5.4.049003
Madurowicz A, Macintosh B, Chilcote J, Perrin M, Poyneer L, Pueyo L et al. Asymmetries in adaptive optics point spread functions. Journal of Astronomical Telescopes, Instruments, and Systems. 2019 Oct 1;5(4). 049003. https://doi.org/10.1117/1.JATIS.5.4.049003
Madurowicz, Alexander ; Macintosh, Bruce ; Chilcote, Jeffrey ; Perrin, Marshall ; Poyneer, Lisa ; Pueyo, Laurent ; Ruffio, Jean Baptiste ; Bailey, Vanessa P. ; Barman, Travis ; Bulger, Joanna ; Cotten, Tara ; De Rosa, Robert J. ; Doyon, Rene ; Duchêne, Gaspard ; Esposito, Thomas M. ; Fitzgerald, Michael P. ; Follette, Katherine B. ; Gerard, Benjamin L. ; Goodsell, Stephen J. ; Graham, James R. ; Greenbaum, Alexandra Z. ; Hibon, Pascale ; Hung, Li Wei ; Ingraham, Patrick ; Kalas, Paul ; Konopacky, Quinn ; Maire, Jérôme ; Marchis, Franck ; Marley, Mark S. ; Marois, Christian ; Metchev, Stanimir ; Millar-Blanchaer, Maxwell A. ; Nielsen, Eric L. ; Oppenheimer, Rebecca ; Palmer, David ; Patience, Jennifer ; Rajan, Abhijith ; Rameau, Julien ; Rantakyrö, Fredrik T. ; Savransky, Dmitry ; Sivaramakrishnan, Anand ; Song, Inseok ; Soummer, Remi ; Tallis, Melissa ; Thomas, Sandrine ; Wang, Jason J. ; Ward-Duong, Kimberly ; Wolff, Schuyler. / Asymmetries in adaptive optics point spread functions. In: Journal of Astronomical Telescopes, Instruments, and Systems. 2019 ; Vol. 5, No. 4.
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AU - Pueyo, Laurent

AU - Ruffio, Jean Baptiste

AU - Bailey, Vanessa P.

AU - Barman, Travis

AU - Bulger, Joanna

AU - Cotten, Tara

AU - De Rosa, Robert J.

AU - Doyon, Rene

AU - Duchêne, Gaspard

AU - Esposito, Thomas M.

AU - Fitzgerald, Michael P.

AU - Follette, Katherine B.

AU - Gerard, Benjamin L.

AU - Goodsell, Stephen J.

AU - Graham, James R.

AU - Greenbaum, Alexandra Z.

AU - Hibon, Pascale

AU - Hung, Li Wei

AU - Ingraham, Patrick

AU - Kalas, Paul

AU - Konopacky, Quinn

AU - Maire, Jérôme

AU - Marchis, Franck

AU - Marley, Mark S.

AU - Marois, Christian

AU - Metchev, Stanimir

AU - Millar-Blanchaer, Maxwell A.

AU - Nielsen, Eric L.

AU - Oppenheimer, Rebecca

AU - Palmer, David

AU - Patience, Jennifer

AU - Rajan, Abhijith

AU - Rameau, Julien

AU - Rantakyrö, Fredrik T.

AU - Savransky, Dmitry

AU - Sivaramakrishnan, Anand

AU - Song, Inseok

AU - Soummer, Remi

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KW - Fresnel propagation

KW - Point-spread functions

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KW - Turbulence

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