Assessing Disagreement Expressed to Management: Development of the Upward Dissent Scale

Jeffrey Kassing, Wendy Kava

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

12 Scopus citations


The purpose of this study was to create a quantitative measure that would be capable of capturing variation in upward dissent expression. Two hundred twenty-five working adults completed a survey questionnaire that included an initial set of items. Exploratory factor analyses produced a reliable and multidimensional 20-item scale that measured upward dissent along four dimensions: prosocial, threatening resignation, circumvention, and repetition. Early evidence of measurement validity was generated as well, with dimensions relating as expected to upward influence, unfair treatment, and supervisor responsiveness.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)46-56
Number of pages11
JournalCommunication Research Reports
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 1 2013



  • Dissent Expression
  • Organizational Dissent
  • Upward Dissent
  • Upward Influence

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Communication

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