This paper describes the replacement of asbestos cement drinking water lines originally installed between 1938 and 1940 within the City of Yuma, Arizona. The project was undertaken in 2016 between February and April and involved the replacement of approximately 5,800 L.F. of existing aging and undersized asbestos cement water lines in the vicinity of the downtown core to reduce maintenance and repairs and improve water service levels. Six line segments of existing 2-inch to 6-inch asbestos cement water lines were replaced by 6-inch diameter PVC pipe. The City of Yuma worked together with Stantec Consulting Services to use this project as a means to conduct a head-to-head analysis of various aspects of traditional open-cut construction compared to horizontal directional drilling (HDD). The project was intentionally separated into HDD (2,000 L.F.) and open-cut (3,800 L.F.) sections. PVC C900 DR14 was installed using open-cut, while Fusible PVC (FPVC) DR 14 was installed by HDD. Onsite data was collected to analyze and compare environmental impacts, traffic impacts, and productivity. HDD was found to be more advantageous in all three areas when compared to traditional open-cut. Airborne emissions generated during the project by each of the two methods were determined using the eCalc program. Water samples were taken for each installation method to compare water quality before and after the installation of the new water lines.