Abstract

The primary goal of this study was to examine whether effortful control (EC; effortful regulation), reactive undercontrol (IMP; e.g., impulsivity, speed of approach), and reactive overcontrol (NOV; inhibition to novelty) were 3 distinct constructs at 30 months (Time 1; n = 216), 42 months (Time 2; n = 192), and 54 months (Time 3; n = 168) of age. Parents', nonparental caregivers', and/or observers' ratings were obtained for all 3 constructs at all 3 times, as were multiple behavioral indices of each construct. Several alternative factor structures were tested, including 1-, 2-, and 3-factor models. The best fitting and most parsimonious model was one with 3 separate latent constructs at 42 and 54 months and 2 distinct constructs, EC and impulsivity/low inhibition to novelty combined, at 30 months. EC, IMP, and NOV also demonstrated some interindividual consistency across time, especially EC and IMP.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2082-2094
Number of pages13
JournalDevelopmental Psychology
Volume49
Issue number11
DOIs
StatePublished - Nov 2013

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Inosine Monophosphate
European Community
Impulsive Behavior
Caregivers
Parents
caregiver
parents
rating
regulation
time
Inhibition (Psychology)

Keywords

  • Effortful control
  • Impulsivity
  • Reactive control
  • Regulation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Developmental and Educational Psychology
  • Life-span and Life-course Studies
  • Demography

Cite this

Are effortful and reactive control unique constructs in young children? / Eisenberg, Nancy; Edwards, Alison; Spinrad, Tracy; Sallquist, Julie; Wilkens, Natalie; Reiser, Mark.

In: Developmental Psychology, Vol. 49, No. 11, 11.2013, p. 2082-2094.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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